1837 TREATY WITH THE CHOCTAW AND CHICKASAW
This treaty was supposed to guarantee co-existence between the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations. Both nations of people in 1837 occupied the same land due to the previous treaties with the U.S. Government.
1838 OCTOBER CHOCTAW NATION CONSTITUTION
This post-removal constitution outlined the rights provided for every member of the Choctaw Nation.
1842 NOVEMBER CHOCTAW NATION CONSTITUTION
This is an updated version of the Choctaw Nation’s post-removal constitution.
1850 CHOCTAW NATION CONSTITUTION
This is the third updated version of the Choctaw Nation’s post-removal constitution.
1854 TREATY WITH CHOCTAW AND CHICKASAW
This treaty addresses the way land will be divided and surveyed between the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations.
1855 TREATY WITH CHOCTAW AND CHICKASAW
This treaty updates the 1854 treaty between the nations of Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians.
1857 JANUARY 5 CHOCTAW NATION CONSTITUTION
This document is an updated version of the Choctaw Nation’s Constitution.
1860 JANUARY 11 CHOCTAW NATION CONSTITUTION
Sharing many of the same sections as previous constitutions, this updated version also dictates land boundaries near the Canadian and Red Rivers.
1861 ARTICLES CONFEDERATION
This document involves Muscogees, Seminoles, Choctaws and Chickasaws in an agreement of peace for mutual protection within the Confederate States of America.
1866 TREATY WITH CHOCTAW AND CHICKASAW
This treaty is an agreement between the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations and the U.S. Government after the Civil War. Besides granting amnesty for past crimes against the U.S. Government, this treaty also encourages the Choctaws and Chickasaws to seek cooperation from the plains Indians to the west.
by Louis Coleman
CYRUS BYINGTON – Missionary and Choctaw Linguist
Cyrus Byington, a native of Massachusetts, went to the Choctaws in Missippissi in the spring of 1821 and remained to serve them as a Christian missionary for forty-five years, thirty-one of which were at Eagletown.
When he arrived among the Choctaws, they had no written language. The missionaries opened schools but efforts to teach them in English failed and it was decided that the native language had to first be learned and taught.
Byington was detailed to concentrate on learning the language and developing the tools of the written form. He and Alfred Wright, later the founder of Wheelock Mission, cooperated on the project, developed an alphabet and Byington began, with the assistance of a few Choctaws, to develop a Grammar, Dictionary, Definer and Speller of the language.
Byington was the first of the missionaries to become sufficiently knowledgeable of the language to preach in it. He and other missionaries began to translate portions of the Bible and several hymns into Choctaw.
When the Choctaws moved to what is now southeastern Oklahoma, Byington, Wright and other missionaries followed. Byington arrived in late 1835 and established his mission a short distance east of where the town of Eagletown is now located. He lived at the site until 1844 when he moved about a mile and one-half north to a point east of where the Eagletown Cemetery is now located. The purpose of this move was to bring him closer to the new Iyanubbi Female Seminary which was part of the Choctaw Educational system.
From the new site he supervised the seminary, continued his work on the language, founded several churches and served them on his one hundred mile circuit. He also was frequently called upon to treat his Choctaw parishioners medically, there being no physician in the area.
During the early part of his mission tenure, he also farmed to help support his family and raise feed for his stock.
Byington and his family were frequently ill with the fevers and respiratory ailments, which afflicted the Choctaws. Both Byington and his wife were critically ill on several occasions. Their eleven years old son died after a short illness in 1840. Their youngest son, only two and half years old, died of a throat ailment in 1846. Byington’s sister joined his mission in 1839 and only lived a few weeks after arrival.
Byington’s family in the North tried to persuade him to give up the mission and join them there. He was a trained lawyer and could have expected a fairly affluent and comfortable life had he been willing to join them. Instead, he stayed, responding to their entreaties by saying, “I came for life.”
His Choctaw Definer, made up of English words and Choctaw equivalents, was published in 1852 but his Grammar and Dictionary were not printed until after his death.
Byington and his fellow members of the Choctaw Mission were involved in a serious dilemma over the question of slavery.
Many Choctaws owned slaves, particularly the more prominent and influential mixed-blood tribal members. At the same time the sponsors of the Choctaw Mission were mostly abolitionists who demanded that he missionaries speak out in condemnation of the practice of slavery. To have done this it would have caused their ousting from the Choctaw Nation. Most chose to pursue their missionary duties and remain quit about the issue. This caused their sponsor to discontinue support. It was to Byington, “like death” to be separated from an organization which had supported the mission for more than forty years.
With the coming of the Civil War, many missionaries left the Choctaw Nation. Byington, however, chose to remain, continuing his missionary functions and his medical efforts among the Choctaws.
When the war ended, he hoped to continue his mission but such was not to be. He became seriously ill and was not expected to live. He did survive, however, and in July, 1866, his only surviving son, Cyrus Nye, put him in a horse-drawn wagon and took him the two hundred miles to Little Rock, Arkansas, to board a steamboat for Ohio Where his only Daughter, now married, was residing. Enroot, he contracted small pox and was quarantined for a month after arrival in Ohio.
Though his eyesight and hearing were impaired, he recovered sufficiently to resume work on his Choctaw books and Bible translations.
Meanwhile, Mrs. Byington had remained at the Eagletown mission, hoping to see it occupied by a new missionary. She finally joined her husband in Ohio in the spring of 1867.
Byington completed translating the first five books of the Bible into Choctaw and took the manuscripts to New York for printing. He returned to Ohio in the spring of 1868, but later that year became ill and died December 31, 1868 in his seventy fifth year.
At the time of his death, Byington was working on the seventh revision of his Choctaw Grammar. Although the book would not be published until 1871, the various hand written versions had been used by the missionaries for many years. His Choctaw Dictionary was not printed until 1915.
The little Choctaw Hymnbook begun in Missippissi by Byington and his fellow missionaries has been reprinted in numerous editions and is still much in use. It contains fourteen hymns composed or translated by Byington.
Though Byington had assistance from fellow missionaries and some Choctaw in developing the written Choctaw language most of the credit for the accomplishment is his. He created the tools of the language which are still regarded as authoritative. And much of this work was done in what is now McCurtain County.
Great Seal of the Choctaw Nation
An unstrung bow, encompassing three arrows and a smoking pipe-hatchet, symbolizes history and tradition of the Choctaw Indians….
Peaceable by nature, the Choctaws smoked their pipe-hatchets (or tomahawks), as they sat in solemn deliberation around council fires….
The three arrows symbolize the three great Choctaw Chief – Apuckshunnubbe, Pushmataha, and Moshulatubbee – who signed the Treaty of Doaks Stand (1820), by which the United States assigned the tribe a vast domain west (all of Southern Oklahoma) for a part of the Choctaw land in Mississippi. Ten years later when the Choctaws gave up all the rest of their old home country in Mississippi and moved west they divided the new land into three districts and each district was named for one of these great chiefs….
Though peace loving, the Choctaws speedily would string their bows and staunchly set forth to defend themselves if they were provoked….
Pushmataha embodied the nature of the tribe. He was the tribal hero and statesman who, when challenged, became the tribal leader in war…. Provision was made for this seal at the noted Choctaw convention at Doaksville in 1860. This seal was used on all official papers of the Choctaw Nation until 1907, when the Indian and Oklahoma Territories united as the State of Oklahoma.
References: Muriel H. Wright, “The Great Seal of The Choctaw Nation,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma, Volume XXXIII (Winter, 1955-56); original painting by Guy C. Reid.
Post Removal City Life
Bishinik Pre-Statehood town life in the Choctaw Nation From The Social History of the Choctaw Nation: 1865-1907, by James D. Morrison, edited by James C. Milligan and L. David Norris, pages 112-113, Copyright © 1987, Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. (This book can be purchased on line)
Town life in the Choctaw Nation before 1907 exhibited the characteristics of similar communities in the contemporary American West and South. The Oklahoma Star complained in 1875 that local coal prices, twenty to thirty cents a bushel, were much too high and should be only ten or fifteen cents. Bakeries and confectioneries were added to the more primitive business establishments as early as Reconstruction days. By the 189Os, undertakers and embalmers were advertising in the regional papers; Durant was proud to boast the arrival of a hearse in 1899. The usual American rivalry existed between nearby newborn cities. For instance, in 1899 when a Durant barber advertised “clean towels and courteous treatment”, a Caddo editor sarcastically remarked that in other towns “these things are expected.” Perhaps the sarcasm was justified since a Caddo barber had been advertising himself since 1894 as a “tonsorial artist.” Livery stables with “fine horses and substantial carriages” and hacks for rent to traveling men who desired to visit “all points in the country,” were located in every railroad town.
For meticulous dressers, early steam laundry services were to be found in Texas and Arkansas, the shipments going and returning to Oklahoma by rail express. Eventually this inconvenience was remedied as the towns grew in population and wealth, and by the turn of the century dirty linen could be processed at local steam laundries. A bottling company, an ice plant, and a dairy which made daily deliveries of milk and butter house-to-house were all prosperous businesses of South McAlester by the mid-1890s. The Choctaw government happily found these and other enterprises to be new, sources of taxable income. An act of the Council in 1896 assessed annual taxes of five to twenty-five dollars each on drink stands, billiard halls, ice factories, tailors merchants, milliners, restaurants and lunch counters, bottling works, steam laundries, bowling alleys, and banks.