Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma

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GARLAND family LOTS of questions!

Shelly Shelly

posted on May 20, 2011

Ok, so I have done extensive genealogy research and I keep hitting the SAME WALL.
I have traced my roots back to a point that has woven 3 Choctaw bloodlines into my heritage. The first is Phoebe Barbera Peck, daughter of Mary Peck married Samuel Garland in Claiborne, TN on 2/24/1862.

Around the same time period, another Samuel Garland in my family history married Mary Pitchlynn and became a Chief in the Choctaw nation, most famous for being the Chief who Brokered the sale of Choctaw Land to the U.S, Goverment

And last but not least, Sarah Tye was married to Alvin Brassfield circa 1900’s I believe.

Unfortunately due to an age old family fued, the garlands divided into two sects, and many do not claim relation to the other. Because of this, I am having the most difficult time adding together the two family trees.

I am currently seeking as much information as I can on the situation in order to apply for the right to be called ‘Choctaw’ as I feel was a birth right taken away from me.
Any and all information is HIGHLY appreciated!
I have also included a portrait of phoebe and my great great grandfather, Samuel Nelson.

attached:

suzanne hamlet shatto suzanne hamlet shatto

posted on May 21, 2011

very few dates in this post. no children, few locations. genealogists use names, locations, children and spouse to match records.

mary ? m. ? peck
phoebe barbera peck m. samuel garland 2/24/1862

samuel garland m. mary pitchlynn

sarah tye m. alvin brassfield

do you see the missing information here?

did any of these families attempt to enroll in a tribe? did they migrate to oklahoma?

you don’t explain the difficulty with this. you don’t “tie” the trees together. people do genealogy by going back one generation at a time, gathering documents. children’s documents point to the parents and fix the family to a location and date. what documents do you have on the children?

http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~tnclaib2/1850cct/06710677.jpg
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~tnclaib2/1850cct/06770684.jpg
these are consecutive pages. the families lived next door to each other, samuel garland and phoebe peck.

CHIEF SAMUEL GARLAND

Born in Mississippi in 1803 , grandson of Maj. James Garland, a Scottsman, and a full blood Choctaw woman; the family emigrated to Choctaw Nation. Student of Choctaw Academy. Samuel was son of John Garland who signed Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. Samuel Garland lived, died and is buried in Janis, McCurtain County, Oklahoma. Brothers: John, Silas and James. Sister: Nancy and Lucy. Silas’ children included Israel whose daughter married Mitchel Harrison and a white man named Hall. They were parents of Chief William Harrison of Poteau. Sam Garland married Mary Pitchlynn, sister of Peter P. Pitchlynn. They had one son, Crocket Garland. Louis Ledbetter of Wewoka married a daughter of Crocket Garland. Sam Garland was member of the Net Proceeds Claim delegation. He had 600 acres of red River bottom land and a palatial Southern home near Tom. He died in 1870 while a member of the Council and the Net Proceeds Claim delegation.

i don’t know that crocket garland ever married or had children.
U.S., Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940
about Crockett Garland
Name: Crockett Garland
Date of Birth: abt 1861
Age: 24
Gender: Male
Tribe: Choctaw
Agency: Union
Last Census Number: 750
Census Date: 1885

this is a different crocket garland from the crocket who was the son of samuel garland.

there were other records about a crocket garland b. 1832 but i don’t see a wife or cihldren for him on rootsweb.com. this doesn’t mean that he didn’t marry and have children, but you should correspond with people who have this family tree.

Alvin Jones BRASSFIELD was born ABT JAN 1840 in Jellico Creek, Whitley, Kentucky, USA, and died 09 DEC 1907 in Carpenter, Kentucky. He married Sarah TYE 15 JAN 1867 in Whitley, Kentucky, USA, daughter of Nelson R. TYE and Obedience TYE. She was born 25 NOV 1836 in Carpenter, Whitley County, Kentucky, and died ABT 1879 in Whitley, Kentucky, USA.

this family tree is on rootsweb as well.

natives took surnames of favorite people, places and things. some natives married caucasian males and took their surnames. some were slaves and took their masters’ surname. i don’t know if you thought that a chief and your family name must be related because they were the same name. maybe they are, but maybe not closely or directly. in any case, i think you should contact people who have posted the family tree of the people that you know you are directly related to and exchange sources.

genealogists use names, dates, locations, children and spouses to match records. if you have a common surname, you need to give more information rather than less. if you post about women, it is helpful to include the maiden name and the married name and designate which one is the maiden name.

start with what you know, gather documentation, then you can go backward in time. so get your birth certificate, your parents’ birth certificates and marriage license and then you can start on your grandparents. if someone passed away after 1/1/1937, they probably have a social security application on file. if you ask a government for a birth certificate, and they were born before 1929, they might have sumitted a delayed birth certificate. death certificates, cemetery information and obituaries are helpful. you can usually get a copy of an obituary, newspaper mentions such as birth of a child or marriage, through the interlibrary loan program – see your local public library for this. i usually start with the death and work toward the person’s birth. military records and pension records can be helpful. census records can tell you where they were at particular times. the census records up to 1930 are available, although the 1890 census was largely destroyed. the 1940 census will be public information in 2012.

first of all, heritage and tribal enrollment are two different things. many times natives didn’t apply for enrollment because 1) they didn’t qualify, 2) they were philosophically opposed to enrollment, 3) they didn’t have documentation, or 4) they were mississippi choctaw and their ancestor had accepted land or benefits in lieu of tribal enrollment.

the dawes roll was taken 1896-1906, so you should trace your ancestors down to that time period. mostly, they had to be living in oklahoma by that time and agree to live there permanently.

2 ways to search:
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/finalroll.php
this will let you enter partial names to get card#. click on the card# in the card column and you can see other names in that family.
other resources on the left and at the bottom of this webpage. native census records and databases are especially useful.

http://www.okhistory.org/research/dawes/index.php
this will give you card# (family group) and enrollment #. they have some native marriage records too. other oklahoma records listed at left.
if the name is common, you may find too many possible records.
http://okhistory.cuadra.com/star/public.html

the tribe has an excellent information to help you. it is found under genealogy advocacy.
http://choctawnation.com/services/departments/community-services/

NARA http://www.archives.gov/ federal records repository. the fort worth, TX office has archives for oklahoma and texas tribes. atlanta/morrow office has archives for the southwest tribes. many offices have microfilmed records for several tribes. note that this web address has changed recently from nara.gov.

mississippi choctaw and choctaw tribe explained here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choctaw_Trail_of_Tears

http://www.choctaw.org/

jena choctaw tribe in louisiana:
http://www.jenachoctaw.org/

MOWA tribe
http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1368
http://www.uab.edu/uabmagazine/2009/july/losttribe
http://www.native-american-online.org/MOWA-Choctaw.htm
MOWA Band Of Choctaws Wilford Taylor 1080 Red Fox Road Mount Vernon, AL 36560 (251) 829-5500. E-Mail: chieftaylor@mowachoctaw.com

other choctaw tribes: http://www.aaanativearts.com/choctaw-indians/index.html

chickasaw historical society 22
Historic Preservation and
Repatriation Office
Phone: (580) 272-5325
Fax: (580) 272-5327
2020 E. Arlington, Suite 4, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

chickasaw tribe
Chickasaw Nation Headquarters
520 East Arlington, Ada, OK 74820
Phone (580) 436-2603
Mailing address: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821
http://www.chickasaw.net/index.htm

chickasaw genealogy archive center 23
Tribal Library
Phone: (580) 310-6477
Fax: (580) 559-0773
1003 Chamber Loop, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

http://www.okhistory.org/
oklahoma historical society

texas tribes
http://www.native-languages.org/texas.htm
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas/index.htm
http://www.texasindians.com/
http://www.texasindians.com/
http://www.lsjunction.com/places/indians.htm

oklahoma tribes:
http://500nations.com/Oklahoma_Tribes.asp
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/oklahoma/index.htm
http://www.cowboy.net/native/tribes.html

some links for the choctaw.
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/choctaw/index.htm
i looked at the land records and those need a lot of work. i have no information about whether or when they will improve some of these categories.

types of records available for native americans:
pages 366-369 in particular although the entire native american chapter is helpful.
The Genealogist’s Companion and Sourcebook:
Guide to the Resources You Need for Unpuzzling Your Past
Emily Anne Croom
you can ask for these particular pages from your local public library. if they don’t have the book, you can get the pages through the interlibrary loan program.
native american records are discussed in pages 352-386.

Tracing ancestors among the Five Civilized Tribes: Southeastern Indians …
By Rachal Mills Lennon
this book could be accessed through the interlibary loan program also.

always find the state archives. some records are online, some records are not. but many times you can find a record not found in other places. you want to see also about newspaper mentions for obituaries, births, marriages in particular.

check courts for probate, civil and criminal cases, marriage records.

if your ancestors lived on a reservation, they might not appear on a federal census because they were not taxed.
http://www.okgenweb.org/~okgarvin/kinard/1860index.htm
1860 census, indian territory.

this book is a good read about the dawes roll and how they implemented it.
The Dawes Commission and the allotment of the Five Civilized Tribes, 1893-1914
By Kent Carter

good advice about native research:
http://jenniferhsrn2.homestead.com/research2.html

if your relatives came from a different geographic location or belonged to a different tribe, try searching google for the state and tribes. you might find a contact for a state-recognized tribe or a federal recognized tribe.

i have collected many resources over the years. if you want to write to me, shamlet76@gmail.com and request the choctaw resource list, i will be glad to send it to you.

i am just a volunteer that wants to empower people to learn how to do genealogy.

suzanne hamlet shatto

Barbara Barbara

posted on January 26, 2012

I too have a Samuel Garland I’m stuck on. This one married a Catherine Buchanan. If you should have any luck, just contact me at samismimi@yahoo.com and I’ll do the same for you. Good luck!

Alaina Garland Alaina Garland

posted on March 5

Shelly,
The Samuel Garland that was the chief (married to Mary Pitchlynn) is my great, great, great, great grandfather’s brother. My understanding is that the other Samuel Garland was HIS grandfather (also mine). It’s kind of drawn out and complicated but I’d be happy to email you what I know.

Shelly Shelly

posted on November 2

Ok, so when I posted this I thought what I had accomplished was ‘extensive’. I will definitely admit I had but scratched the surface at the time.

I do have a tree put together now at geni.com that includes just under 200 relations. Unfortunately, I am still in the listing phase, and not really into much of the research phase of my quest. I now plan to confirm every relation prior to my own grandfather with proper records. Unfortunately, I lost quite an amount of research recently when my trusty laptop was stolen sigh, onward and upward!

What I have found so far goes back to the 1500’s when the scotts Garlands came across the Atlantic. For this conversation all of that is fairly irrelevant.

I was, at first posting, unable to find the name of the father of the Samuel Garland in my direct lineage. I have found his name after conducting some interviews with my family elders. He was, by all acounts know to me, not native. The feud I was told about has been found not to be so much between brothers, but between father and son. Apparently Pryor was not fond of intermarriages. This is, of course, only family stories with no actual documentation.

My issue now is with Phebe Peck. This is the name I was given by a fellow researcher as our families intertwine. I Have a lot of confusion with her name. Sometimes she is named Phebe/Phobe/Pheabe/even Feebee, sometimes the middle name is marked as “Barbra”, and sometimes it is listed as a first name. Her surname is the pits! I have found her documented as Garland, Peck and Foriner. I have a marriage certificate, but it lacks a lot of information I was told was supposed to be included, Only saying ‘Phebe Peck’, and the keyword ‘intermarriage’(supposedly there was supposed to be a sworn statement from her mother Mary, of pure Native Blood). Her mother’s name on one census is Foriner, but they are all listed as White, and some dates don’t add up to the ones I have found or collected.
I have heard a lot of stories of assimilation as to avoid removal, and wonder if perhaps this is my family’s fate? I may never know.
As to the others in my line, if Cheif Samuel is relation, it is distant, though I can see very similar features in his face as my own family.

I have also found multiple records with Chief Samuel Garland that include a photo of Cheif George Harrison. Thought that was odd.

I have yet to look further into Sarah Tye, but she too is not a direct ancestor.

I am now focusing on my great grandmother, Lura Gilreath. I have done very little research on her at present, only collecting a picture of her tombstone from our family cemetery in Ky, and talking to a couple of her living children for proper dates and stories.

I want to thank you suzanne hamlet shatto! All the information you have posted has given me a LOT of ideas of additional things to consider and places to look! I cant wait to get started on this again!

Barbara and Aiaina, I will include the link to the tree I have created. Most information is just lists as told to me by others. I have very little documentation at present, and can only really confirm relatives in living memory.
However, if you find any information valuable, feel free to use it to suit your needs!

http://www.geni.com/family-tree#6000000012112525522

suzanne hamlet shatto suzanne hamlet shatto

posted on November 2

you might want to consider DNA to help you figure out some of your lineage.

i have added some new information in my usual postings, and i will give you that here. when it changes, i don’t keep track of which things might change.

genealogists use names, dates, locations, children and spouses to match records. if you have a common surname, you need to give more information rather than less. if you post about women, it is helpful to include the maiden name and the married name and designate which one is the maiden name.

start with what you know, gather documentation, then you can go backward in time. so get your birth certificate, your parents’ birth certificates and marriage license and then you can start on your grandparents. if someone passed away after 1/1/1937, they probably have a social security application on file. if you ask a government agency for a birth certificate, and they were born before 1929, they might have submitted a delayed birth certificate. death certificates, cemetery information and obituaries are helpful.

you can usually get a copy of an obituary, newspaper mentions such as birth of a child or marriage, through the interlibrary loan program – see your local public library for this. i usually start with the death and work toward the person’s birth. military records and pension records can be helpful.
census records can tell you where they were at particular times, names of family members. the census records up to 1940 are available, although the 1890 census was largely destroyed.

you will need to know who the family members were 1830-1940 or so, where they were located. a good way to do this is by census records. the first time period to concentrate on is 1900-1930 because most tribes enrolled during this period. federal census records can help you here. you can get access through your local public library – two databases: 1) heritage quest, 2) ancestry.com.

there is a difference between tribal heritage and tribal enrollment.

http://www.choctawnation.com/services/departments/
click on enrollment department. read the FAQs and download forms.

every tribe has a membership list of original enrollees. every tribe has requirements for membership. the choctaw tribe of oklahoma requires that new members be directly related to an original enrollee of the tribe who was enrolled by blood. freedmen were enrolled by congressional action, not blood, so there is no provision for enrolling a member who is directly related to a freedman because they were not enrolled through tribal blood quantum.

i do not know of a tribe that enrolls on the basis of DNA testing. this is because DNA testing does not identify particular strains for each tribe. DNA testing might be helpful to you, though, because it will give you names of people who match your DNA and you might be able to find a common ancestor. there are a few vendors for DNA tests such as FTDNA, ancestry.com and 23andme.com. i took the 23andme saliva test. once you have DNA results, you can upload those results to gedmatch.com, a free website that has excellent tools to match others who might have taken a DNA test elsewhere. upload DNA result directions are on the right side of the main menu, program choices are in the center, DNA information on how to use the website and understand DNA are on the left side.

do you have your relative’s birth certificate, death certificate. state vital records for that. if the birth was before 1940, also ask for a delayed birth certificate at the same time as you request a birth certificate. older vital records might be at the state historical society or state archives.

do you have their obituary? sometimes it will list parents and siblings. see your local public library/interlibrary loan program for that.
do you have a cemetery record? try findagrave.com or interment.net and then contact the cemetery to see if there is more information.
i start from the death and work backwards in time.

for tribal information, you want to get down to the 1900-1940 time period so that you know family members, locations, dates, and names. this will help you when you try to find the tribe.
there is more than one choctaw tribe. CA, OK, LA, MS all have choctaw tribes.
there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the five major tribes were on the dawes roll taken 1896-1906 in indian territory/oklahoma. location is important with tribal affiliation because the original enrollees had to agree to live under the authority of the tribe.

many states have reservations and tribes. state historical society, state archives may have more information on this.

1896 map of the choctaw nation showing districts and counties
use this for looking at location in the choctaw census records in the 1800s
in Indian or Freedman?: Enrollment, Race, and Identity in the Choctaw Nation, 1896-1907
Jesse T. Schreier
The Western Historical Quarterly
Vol. 42, No. 4 (WINTER 2011), pp. 458-479
Published by: Western Historical Quarterly, Utah State University
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/westhistquar.42.4.0459?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21104532512787
other choctaw nation maps:
http://www.okgenweb.org/~okchocta/choctaw_nation.htm
the choctaw nation and indian territory are locations for maps and census records.

some tribes are still enrolling. the BIA recently relaxed their requirements and there will probably be several tribes that apply under the new guidelines. this means that some tribes may be in the process of applying and enrolling members. you should pursue your heritage in a timely manner because of the possibility that a tribe is trying to construct a list of original enrollees.
find your relative in the 1900-1940 census. this will give you locations, family members, dates that you will need for looking on the dawes roll, taken 1896-1906 in the state of oklahoma/indian territory. the dawes roll lists applicants to the five major tribes of oklahoma. use the accessgenealogy website to do this or ancestrypaths:
http://userdb.rootsweb.ancestry.com/nativeamerican/
get family group/card#, members of the family:
partial names ok. just enter the name.
to see the family on the card, click on the “more information” link.
if your ancestors match this card, then you should look at the dawes application.

http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/final-rolls.htm
partial names might not be found on this website.
find a possible name, click on the # in the card# column and this will show you the family group as of application.

use the 1900 and 1910 census to match the names. write down the names, card#.

if you don’t find your family, then look at the 1900-1940 census locations for your family, look for nearby tribes. contact the nearby tribes to see if your family had enrolled. find out membership criteria for that tribe. there are tribes in other locations and other choctaw tribes. location is an important factor over whether a native enrolled in a tribe. you won’t find that an original enrollee enrolled in the choctaw tribe in oklahoma if they were living in another state, for instance. if your family was renting in 1910, for instance, they had not received a land grant from one of the five major tribes in oklahoma and were probably not enrolled. there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the 5 major tribes are on the dawes roll.

many natives did not want to live under tribal authority or didn’t qualify for enrollment or could not submit satisfactory evidence to a tribe. this is very common. it means that your family is not enrolled in a tribe.

there were a few natives that were enrolled by tribal council approval or lawsuit. i don’t have any way to tell you whether someone was enrolled because of this. you would have to contact the tribe for this information. however, some people have posted this answer and you might be able to use google on your family names and see this.

supposing you find your family in the dawes roll, then look at the oklahoma historical society dawes website and put in the name of someone in that family group that you found on accessgenealogy. this will give you the enrollment # if the enrollment was successful. write down the enrollment #s for your family.

if you found your family on the dawes roll, you might want a copy of the dawes packet. four sources for this:

1) once you have the card#, search here for documents. the website is free at this time:
http://www.ancestrypaths.com/five-civilized-tribes/
arranged by card#. use the slider bar at the bottom to approximate your card#. the packets are arranged in order of card#. usually the beginning document references the card#.

in case this webpage is not available, you can get a copy of the dawes packet from:

1) fold3.com a subscription website but the cost of one month’s subscription is less than the price of the dawes packet elsewhere.

2) oklahoma historical society:
http://www.okhistory.org/research/dawes

3) NARA http://www.archives.gov/research/native-americans/dawes/intro.html

there may be more than one card# for a particular person, depending on whether they were a parent at the time of enrollment. there may also be an associated card# where one decision depended on decisions on other cards.

sometimes a family’s consideration also depends on an earlier decision in their family. so you may have more than one card# to look up.

a dawes packet contains census card, enrollment application, supporting documents and maybe testimony. even if your family was not enrolled, the genealogical information might be of interest to you.

the enrolled members are referred to as original enrollees. if your family had enrolled by blood then you are eligible to enroll in the choctaw tribe of oklahoma. all tribes have membership criteria. if your family had been enrolled as freedman, then they were enrolled as former slaves and their descendants were not eligible to enroll in the tribe. freedman was a classification created by congress for former slaves.

the dawes roll shows the applicants to the five major tribes 1896-1906 in indian territory/oklahoma. if your family applied for this, there would be a census card, dawes application, other supporting documents and testimony. these are located at NARA http://www.archives.gov try the fort worth, TX office.

requirements for enrollment for several oklahoma tribes:
http://thorpe.ou.edu/OILS/blood.html
What are tribal membership requirements?

Tribal enrollment criteria are set forth in tribal constitutions, articles of incorporation or ordinances. The criterion varies from tribe to tribe, so uniform membership requirements do not exist.

Two common requirements for membership are lineal decendency from someone named on the tribe’s base roll or relationship to a tribal member who descended from someone named on the base roll. (A “base roll” is the original list of members as designated in a tribal constitution or other document specifying enrollment criteria.) Other conditions such as tribal blood quantum, tribal residency, or continued contact with the tribe are common.

http://www.narf.org/nill/resources/enrollment.htm

enrollment is a two step process. first you have to get your CDIB card from the BIA to show your degree of blood/eligibility to enroll in a particular tribe, and then you have to apply to the tribe for acceptance, if you meet their membership requirements.

Tribal Government personnel, usually an Enrollment Clerk, located at a regional or agency office processes applications for Certificates of Degree of Indian Blood (CDIB) and Indian Preference in Employment, BIA Form 4432, to anyone who can provide documentation that he or she descends from an American Indian tribe.
http://www.bia.gov/WhatWeDo/ServiceOverview/TribalGov/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_American_recognition_in_the_United_States
this article has many resources.
however i find the paragraph on “Recognition for individuals” to be somewhat insensitive.

i think someone should rewrite that paragraph.

What are the most typical requirements for membership?
Each tribe has a base roll which was established, usually, in the early 20th century, listing the members of the tribe at that time. Your first challenge will be to prove direct lineal descent from someone listed on that base roll. Then you must prove that you have the required level of blood quantum – the percentage of your genetic make-up that is native by bloodline. Most tribes require a 1/4 blood quantum – that is, you must be at least one-fourth Native American – but note that the Eastern Band of the Cherokees requires that you be only 1/16 or higher to join, and the Cherokee Nation and Choctaw tribe have no minimum quantum restriction, so long as you can prove descent. There may be other conditions for membership as well: requirements for tribal residency or continued ontact with the tribe are common.
http://freedomcenter.org/_media/pdf/genealogy/16.%20Native%20American%20-%20Tribal%20Membership.pdf

choctaw enrollment, forms, FAQs
http://www.choctawnation.com/services/departments/enrollment-cdib-and-tribal-membership/

trail of tears map and MS/AL reservations:
http://www.oursharedfamilyhistory.com/resources/maps/mappg.html

indian territory maps:
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~itgenweb/itprojects/census.htm
they need volunteers to help them. contact the webpage owner.
http://www.okgenweb.org/okprojects/xref/help/str-regions.htm

some land records, including freedmen.
http://www.oursharedfamilyhistory.com/resources/helppg.html#hast
as i look at this, i view it as a work in progress, rather than a final index. it is helpful because of the alphabetical listings. includes index to indian pioneer paper interviews. this is a volunteer opportunity also, if you want to help this webpage become complete. contact the owner of the webpage to help them.

obituaries through the oklahoma choctaw tribe is through the history link for the tribe:
http://www.choctawnation.com/history/

social security application for a deceased person:
http://www.ssa.gov/foia/html/foia_guide.htm
form SS-5.

your public library probably has a subscription to heritage quest and ancestry.com. fold3.com is another useful database for native records and military records, but they are a subscription. however, many times, their month’s subscription price is less than the price of a dawes packet. you can google fold3 and your ancestor’s name to see if your relative’s dawes packet is available at fold3.
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/final-rolls.htm

http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/choctaw-indian-research.htm
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indian-census-records.htm
there is an 1860 and 1885 census in the indian territory

accessgenealogy’s collection of information: if you are from another tribe, use the links at the right.
if you are from an associated tribe, see the several possible links on the webpage.

bear in mind that many records are not online. always collect documents, as just the reference to a relative in an index informs you that a document is available.

death records:
death certificate: state vital records or if very old, state archives or state historical society. ask for the person’s name at the time of death. you can look at death indices, such as the social security death index 1964-present for a date of death on rootsweb.com or ancestry.com.
obituary: see your local public library, interlibrary loan program. ask for the person’s name at the time of death. approximate date of death is helpful. if old, state historical society or state archives might have historical newspapers.
cemetery record: try findagrave.com or interment.net. ask for the person’s name at the time of death. if you find a relative, you can click on the county or cemetery to see if others with the same surname are buried there. contact the cemetery to see if there is more information. if you are a member, you can request a photo of the gravesite.

marriage records:
state vital records office, county clerk or if old, state archives or state historical society.

birth records:
state vital records office, or if old, state archives or state historical society. if the birth was before 1940, ask for a birth certificate or a delayed birth certificate. many people had to get delayed birth certificates when social security came into effect because they had to show proof of age. this will be under the name used at the time of birth.

census records:
you will want to search for census records 1940 on down to the birth of your relative. the federal census was taken every 10 years, however the 1890 census was largely destroyed by fire. there are also some state census records and native census records and native rolls. ancestry.com and heritage quest are two databases that include many census records. many native census records kept by NARA (http://www.archives.gov) are transcribed at accessgenealogy.

first of all, heritage and tribal enrollment are two different things. many times natives didn’t apply for enrollment because 1) they didn’t qualify, 2) they were philosophically opposed to enrollment, 3) they didn’t have documentation, or 4) they were mississippi choctaw and their ancestor had accepted land or benefits in lieu of tribal enrollment. some mississippi choctaw were accepted by adoption or lawsuit.

for those people who do not yet have a card, you should research the 1900-1940 census to know approximate dates of birth, birthplaces, family members. this will also tell you if someone is more likely to be on the freedman roll or as applicants to the dawes roll taken 1896-1906 in indian territory/oklahoma for the five major tribes.

applicants on the dawes roll can be found here:
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/finalroll.php
partial names are ok. look at the guide link for explanation of the codes.

when you find a possible name, then click on the card# in the card column to see the family group. if it is your family group, and they were likely enrolled, then you can search the oklahoma historical society’s dawes roll link to get the enrollment #’s for particular family members.
http://www.okhistory.org/research/dawes

if your family was enrolled by council action early in the process or was enrolled by lawsuit, they might not appear on the oklahoma historical society website. you would have to check with the tribe on that.

even if your family was rejected by the dawes process, you may want the testimony, census card, application information for your genealogical purposes.

the federal census will also help you decide which state to contact for vital records.

the dawes roll was taken 1896-1906, so you should trace your ancestors down to that time period. mostly, they had to be living in oklahoma by that time and agree to live there permanently.

history of the dawes roll
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawes_Act
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawes_Commission
wikipedia entries are sometimes opinionated; entered by volunteers.

helpful information about tribal enrollment
http://www.felihkatubbe.com/ChoctawNation/TribalMembership.html

freedmen information:
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ewyatt/_borders/
http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/F/FR016.html
http://www.african-nativeamerican.com/8-chocfreed.htm
http://www.okhistory.org/research/dawes

Indian or Freedman?: Enrollment, Race, and Identity in the Choctaw Nation, 1896-1907
Jesse T. Schreier
The Western Historical Quarterly
Vol. 42, No. 4 (WINTER 2011), pp. 458-479
Published by: Western Historical Quarterly, Utah State University
Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/westhistquar.42.4.0459
Abstract:
This article examines the standards of tribal membership in the Choctaw Nation (present-day Oklahoma) during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Although forced by the U.S. Congress to make rolls of its members, the Choctaw government willingly used race to trump other considerations when it came to determining citizenship, including long-held cultural practices.

see your local public library/interlibrary loan program for access to this article.

if the name is common, you may find too many possible records. this is why you should have good information in trying to search for your relative. i start with the death and work backwards in time. do not make the mistake of trying to search only online records. many records are not online. vital records are very important. if you are having difficulty finding an ancestor, back up a generation and look at the childrens’ birth records, death records and obituaries.

the five civilized tribes book put out by the department of the interior has testimony.
http://books.google.com/books/about/Five_civilized_tribes_in_Oklahoma.html?id=chATAAAAYAAJ
and you can read it online

and these are the microfilms at fort worth TX archives.
http://www.archives.gov/southwest/finding-aids/native-american-microfilm.html

there may be additional records about your relative:
contact NARA http://www.archives.gov for these and other records listed on this webpage.

75.23 RECORDS OF THE COMMISSIONER TO THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES 1852-1919
75.23.1 Records of the Dawes Commission
75.23.2 Records of the U.S. Indian Inspector for Indian Territory
75.23.3 General records of the Commissioner to the Five Civilized Tribes
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html
(Record Group 75)
1793-1989

http://gateway.okhistory.org/
this has a search but you may have to read the whole edition of a newspaper to find your search match.
the search term will be highlighted. the newspapers (location and years) are limited, so you might want to search for the location and look at years available.

http://okhistory.cuadra.com/star/public.html
oklahoma newspaper and archives search. some of these resources may be available through interlibrary loan/public library.
you can try school records in the oklahoma state archives, the oklahoma historical society and NARA.
http://www.odl.state.ok.us/oar/
http://www.okhistory.org/
these two resources might have historical newspapers and local history books. your public library/interlibrary loan program might also have access to newspapers and local history books.

as for stories, you can see if any of the relatives are mentioned in the oklahoma pioneer papers or oklahoma chronicles.

http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/
volumes are alphabetical by surname.
if an interview is not online, contact the host of these interviews.

http://www.okhistory.org/publications/chronicles

the tribe has an excellent information to help you. it is found under genealogy advocacy.
http://choctawnation.com/services/departments/community-services/
some obituaries:
http://www.choctawnation.com/history/obituaries/

NARA http://www.archives.gov/ federal records repository. the fort worth, TX office has archives for oklahoma and texas tribes. atlanta/morrow office has archives for the southeast tribes. many offices have microfilmed records for several tribes.

freedmen info:
You can ONLY apply for Choctaw Nation Membership, AFTER you have obtained a CDIB card proving your Choctaw Blood lineage to a direct ancestor who actually enrolled, BY BLOOD. Freedmen DID NOT enroll By Blood. When US Congress closed the Final Dawes Commission Rolls, there were no provisions granting Freedmen any benefits after the Dawes Commission closed. The tribe Constitution states BY BLOOD. however, the documents (application, census card and testimony) may help you find out more about your heritage.

about blood quantum laws:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_quantum_laws
calculations about blood quantum:
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wishawa4/Menominee%20Indians/quantum.htm

mississippi choctaw and choctaw tribe explained here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choctaw_Trail_of_Tears
http://www.choctaw.org/

jena choctaw tribe in louisiana:
http://www.jenachoctaw.org/

california choctaw tribe (okla chahta clan of california, inc.)
http://www.oklachahta.org/

MOWA tribe
http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1368
http://www.uab.edu/uabmagazine/2009/july/losttribe
http://www.mowa-choctaw.com/

other choctaw tribes:
http://www.aaanativearts.com/choctaw-indians/index.html

chickasaw historical society
Historic Preservation and Repatriation Office
Phone: (580) 272-5325
Fax: (580) 272-5327
2020 E. Arlington, Suite 4, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

chickasaw tribe
Chickasaw Nation Headquarters
520 East Arlington, Ada, OK 74820
Phone (580) 436-2603
Mailing address: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821
http://www.chickasaw.net/index.htm

chickasaw genealogy archive center Tribal Library
Phone: (580) 310-6477
Fax: (580) 559-0773
1003 Chamber Loop, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

http://www.okhistory.org/
oklahoma historical society
marriage records
http://www.okhistory.org/research/library/marriage.html
http://www.okgenweb.org/~okgarvin/kinard/chocmarriageindex.htm

other historical societies:
http://www.daddezio.com/society/hill/SH-OK-NDX.html
some oklahoma genealogical societies:
http://www.censusfinder.com/oklahoma-genealogy-society.htm
http://www.geneasearch.com/societies/socokla.htm

texas tribes
http://www.native-languages.org/texas.htm
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas/index.htm
http://www.texasindians.com/
http://www.lsjunction.com/places/indians.htm

oklahoma tribes:
http://500nations.com/Oklahoma_Tribes.asp
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/oklahoma/index.htm
http://www.cowboy.net/native/tribes.html
http://yvwiiusdinvnohii.net/OKTribes.htm

tribes in other locations:
http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/tribal/list-of-federal-and-state-recognized-tribes.aspx

some links for the choctaw.
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/choctaw/index.htm
i looked at the land records and those need a lot of work. i have no information about whether or when they will improve some of these categories.
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/choctaw-tribe.htm
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/choctaw-indian-research.htm
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indian-census-records.htm

types of records available for native americans:
pages 366-369 in particular although the entire native american chapter is helpful.
The Genealogist’s Companion and Sourcebook:
Guide to the Resources You Need for Unpuzzling Your Past
Emily Anne Croom
you can ask for these particular pages from your local public library. if they don’t have the book, you can get the pages through the interlibrary loan program.
native american records are discussed in pages 352-386.

Tracing ancestors among the Five Civilized Tribes: Southeastern Indians …
By Rachal Mills Lennon
this book could be accessed through the interlibary loan program also.

always find the state archives. some records are online, some records are not. but many times you can find a record not found in other places. you want to see also about newspaper mentions for obituaries, births, marriages in particular.

check courts for probate, civil and criminal cases, marriage records.

if your ancestors lived on a reservation, they might not appear on a federal census because they were not taxed.
http://www.okgenweb.org/~okgarvin/kinard/1860index.htm
1860 census, indian territory.

this book is a good read about the dawes roll and how they implemented it.
The Dawes Commission and the allotment of the Five Civilized Tribes, 1893-1914
By Kent Carter
and you can read this book online. your relatives’ testimony might be in the book.
http://www.archive.org/details/fivecivilizedtr00statgoog
see the menu at left. you can download it. you should look at the enrollment application, census card and testimony. this post will tell you how to do that. these documents will tell you more about your heritage, but it won’t help you if your goal is to be enrolled in the choctaw tribe of oklahoma. some people were classed as mississippi choctaw if the family had a native heritage but didn’t qualify for enrollment in the tribe.

there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the five major tribes are on the dawes roll. look at your family’s location around 1900-1930 time period (census will help you there) and see if there was a tribe located nearby. it is possible that your relatives were affiliated with another tribe.

http://www.burlesonstar.net/nationalnews/ci_25815930
changing tribal recognition rules

if they were mississippi choctaw, there is probably a land grant in MS/AL to a head of household called choctaw scrip land. this was given in lieu of tribal enrollment 1830-1880 time period. ancestry.com has a database of the MS and AL choctaw scrip land records, called mississippi or alabama land records. there are other land records in those databases too, so you have to look at the authority/source cited. NARA http://www.archives.gov has those land record packages.
the mississippi choctaw were not removed from oklahoma. but they were largely rejected for tribal enrollment.

this website might help you in your search. some people are trying to transcribe applications.
http://www.us-census.org/native/choctaw_dawes.html
i do not know what they are trying to transcribe, but this is the volunteer page
http://www.us-census.org/states/graphics/status.htm

and this might be of interest to you:
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/choctaw/rights-of-choctaws.htm
Rights of Mississippi Choctaws in the Choctaw Nation

good advice about native research:
http://jenniferhsrn2.homestead.com/research2.html

if your relatives came from a different geographic location or belonged to a different tribe, try searching google for the state and tribes. you might find a contact for a state-recognized tribe or a federal recognized tribe.

this page can help you set up a targeted google search.
http://www.searchforancestors.com/google/searcher.html

penny postcards. this is a website that features pictures that were on postcards. click on the state to see the postcards that they have.
http://www.usgwarchives.org/special/ppcs/ppcs.html
if you have a penny postcard, you can click on submissions to add your penny postcard to the collection.

i have collected many resources over the years. if you want to write to me, shamlet76@gmail.com and request the choctaw resource list, i will be glad to send it to you. this list is not different than the information contained in this post and was a collection of information acquired because people asked questions. it is an older list.

you may want to make a heritage book.
http://www.photobookgirl.com/blog/make-your-own-family-heritage-and-genealogy-photo-book/

good family tree software:
http://www.techshout.com/features/2013/22/best-free-genealogy-software/
i use legacy. the free basic edition is great for the beginning and helps you organize.

i am just a volunteer that wants to empower people to learn how to do genealogy.

suzanne hamlet shatto