Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma

The Great Seal of the Choctaw Nation



posted on December 1, 2013 and updated on December 2, 2013

I’m searching the WINFORD line. DEWEY O WINFORD, born and lived in Indian Territory in 1849.My grandmother MARY JEWELL WINFORD was in Creek territory at the age of 7 in 1900. There is some confusion if we are Creek or Choctaw. The Winford line was born and lived in Indian territory . Winfords are also from Garvin OK and Texas. Mary J Winford married into the Cordell line

suzanne hamlet shatto suzanne hamlet shatto

posted on December 2, 2013

you can look on the native census records, native databases and rolls.

these records are at NARA, fort worth, TX office.

i don’t know what documents you have.

1940 United States Federal Census about Jewel Cordell
Name: Jewel Cordell
[Mary Jewel Winford]
Age: 34
Estimated Birth Year: abt 1906
Gender: Female
Race: White
Birthplace: Oklahoma
Marital Status: Married
Relation to Head of House: Wife
Home in 1940: Highland, San Bernardino, California
Map of Home in 1940: View map
Street: East Base Line
House Number: 1559
Inferred Residence in 1935: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Oklahoma
Residence in 1935: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Oklahoma
Resident on farm in 1935: No
Sheet Number: 2A
Institution: M D H
Attended School or College: No
Highest Grade Completed: High School, 1st year
Weeks Worked in 1939: 0
Income: 0
Income Other Sources: No
Neighbors: View others on page
Household Members:
Name Age
Talmadge Cordell 39
Jewel Cordell 34
Talmadge Cordell 16
Gerald Cordell 14
Donald Cordell 11
Harold Cordell 5
Joy Cordell 2
Source Citation: Year: 1940; Census Place: Highland, San Bernardino, California; Roll: T627_289; Page: 2A; Enumeration District: 36-50.

there is a california choctaw tribe as well.

1930 United States Federal Census about Talmage P Cordell
Name: Talmage P Cordell
Gender: Male
Birth Year: abt 1924
Birthplace: Oklahoma
Race: White
Home in 1930: Detroit, Wayne, Michigan
Map of Home: View map
Marital Status: Single
Relation to Head of House: Son
Father’s Name: Talmage P Cordell
Father’s Birthplace: Oklahoma
Mother’s Name: M Jewell Cordell
Mother’s Birthplace: Oklahoma


Military Service:

Rent/home value:

Age at first marriage:

Parents’ birthplace:

View Image
Neighbors: View others on page
Household Members:
Name Age
Talmage P Cordell 30
M Jewell Cordell 25
Talmage P Cordell 6
Gerald R Cordell 4
[4 5/12]
Donald Cordell 1
[1 6/12]
Rosco R Howard 23
Irene Howard 21
Source Citation: Year: 1930; Census Place: Detroit, Wayne, Michigan; Roll: 1057; Page: 6A; Enumeration District: 0614; Image: 761.0; FHL microfilm: 2340792.

talmadge cordell is a machinist in a tool factory. i’m seeing texas in some locations for the parents. texas was not on the trail of tears in the late 1830s but there were unofficial migrations from MS/AL reservations to/through texas.

California, Death Index, 1940-1997 about Talmadge Pinkney Cordell
Name: Talmadge Pinkney Cordell
Social Security #: 444098092
Gender: Male
Birth Date: 11 Oct 1901
Birth Place: Oklahoma
Death Date: 22 Apr 1980
Death Place: Kern
Mother’s Maiden Name: Jones

i am somewhat confused. some of your information doesn’t match these records and i am not sure whether these records are about one person or more than one person. you would have to figure that out.

California, Death Index, 1940-1997 about Mary Jewell Cordell
Name: Mary Jewell Cordell
[Mary Jewell Winford]
Gender: Female
Birth Date: 15 Aug 1904
Birth Place: Oklahoma
Death Date: 28 Sep 1950
Death Place: San Diego
Mother’s Maiden Name: Wise
Father’s Surname: Winford

i kind of think that some of those census records and other records were about someone with a similar name.

i think what has happened with the ancestry records is that there is more than one person by this name and someone has gone through records and found someone with a similar name and assumed it is your relative.

start with the death and work backwards in time, accumulating records. don’t guess. collect documents.

when social security came into effect 1/1/1937 people had to show proof of age. often this was a delayed birth certificate. you can get a copy from state vital records. ask for a birth certificate or a delayed birth certificate. the social security application of a deceased person is available with an SS-5. this way you can see what the person themselves wrote about their parents’ names and locations.

i don’t see any evidence that mary jewell winford or her family was in indian territory in 1900. residence alone is insufficient to show native affiliation. there were oklahoma land rushes and business opportunities drawing people to the indian territory.

the only winfords on the dawes roll taken 1896-1906 in indian territory shows that the winfords that applied to a tribe were rejected. they applied to the choctaw tribe. since i don’t know mary jewell winford’s parents names, i don’t know whether these were parents or not.

Dawes Card Information
Tribe Last First Middle Age Sex Blood Card Roll Misc Type
Choctaw Clark M C 0 M R669 P

Choctaw Clark Nancy 0 F R669 P

Choctaw Winford Bob 0 M R669 P

Choctaw Winford Charlie 17 M 1/16 R669 R

Choctaw Winford Everett 9 M 1/16 R669 R

Choctaw Winford Jesse 4 M 1/16 R669 R

Choctaw Winford Mary 41 F 1/8 R669 R

Choctaw Winford Minnie 14 F 1/16 R669 R

Choctaw Winford Robert 20 M 1/16 R669 R

Choctaw Winford Virgil 6 M 1/16 R669 R

they were all one family group.
you can get a copy of their application,census card from NARA or oklahoma historical society. it would also be available online at, a subscription website. one month’s subscription is less than the price of a dawes packet from NARA or oklahoma historical society.

if you see a relative on the dawes roll, that means there is an underlying record at NARA.

if you need help trying to figure out genealogical records for your relative, a local genealogy society might be able to help you sort out which records are your relative and which records are someone else.

genealogists use names, dates, locations,

children and spouses to match records. if you

have a common surname, you need to give more

information rather than less. if you post

about women, it is helpful to include the

maiden name and the married name and

designate which one is the maiden name.

start with what you know, gather

documentation, then you can go backward in

time. so get your birth certificate, your

parents’ birth certificates and marriage

license and then you can start on your

grandparents. if someone passed away after

1/1/1937, they probably have a social

security application on file. if you ask a

government agency for a birth certificate,

and they were born before 1929, they might

have submitted a delayed birth certificate.

death certificates, cemetery information and

obituaries are helpful. you can usually get a

copy of an obituary, newspaper mentions such

as birth of a child or marriage, through the

interlibrary loan program – see your local

public library for this. i usually start with

the death and work toward the person’s birth.

military records and pension records can be

helpful. census records can tell you where

they were at particular times, names of

family members. the census records up to 1940

are available, although the 1890 census was

largely destroyed.

you will need to know who the family members

were 1830-1930 or so, where they were

located. a good way to do this is by census

the first time period to concentrate on is

1900-1930 because most tribes enrolled during

this period.
federal census records can help you here. you

can get access through your local public

library – two databases: 1) heritage quest,


the dawes roll shows the applicants to the

five major tribes 1896-1906 in indian

territory/oklahoma. if your family applied

for this, there would be a census card, dawes

application, other supporting documents and

testimony. these are located at NARA
try the fort worth, TX office.
there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the

5 major tribes list applicants on the dawes

roll taken 1896-1906 in indian


requirements for enrollment for several

oklahoma tribes:
What are tribal membership requirements?

Tribal enrollment criteria are set forth in

tribal constitutions, articles of

incorporation or ordinances. The criterion

varies from tribe to tribe, so uniform

membership requirements do not exist.

Two common requirements for membership are

lineal decendency from someone named on the

tribe’s base roll or relationship to a tribal

member who descended from someone named on

the base roll. (A “base roll” is the original

list of members as designated in a tribal

constitution or other document specifying

enrollment criteria.) Other conditions such

as tribal blood quantum, tribal residency, or

continued contact with the tribe are common.


enrollment is a two step process. first you

have to get your CDIB card from the BIA to

show your degree of blood/eligibility to

enroll in a particular tribe, and then you

have to apply to the tribe for acceptance, if

you meet their membership requirements.

Tribal Government personnel, usually an

Enrollment Clerk, located at a regional or

agency office processes applications for

Certificates of Degree of Indian Blood (CDIB)

and Indian Preference in Employment, BIA Form

4432, to anyone who can provide documentation

that he or she descends from an American

Indian tribe.


this article has many resources.
however i find the paragraph on “Recognition

for individuals” to be somewhat insensitive.

i think someone should rewrite that


What are the most typical requirements for

Each tribe has a base roll which was

established, usually, in the early 20th

century, listing the members of the tribe
at that time. Your first challenge will be to

prove direct lineal descent from someone

listed on that base roll. Then
you must prove that you have the required

level of blood quantum – the percentage of

your genetic make-up that
is native by bloodline. Most tribes require a

1/4 blood quantum – that is, you must be at

least one-fourth Native
American – but note that the Eastern Band of

the Cherokees requires that you be only 1/16

or higher to join, and the Cherokee Nation

has no minimum quantum restriction, so long

as you can prove descent. There may be other

conditions for membership as well:

requirements for tribal residency or

continued contact with the tribe are common.



choctaw enrollment, forms, FAQs


obituaries through the oklahoma choctaw tribe

is through the history link for the tribe:

social security application for a deceased

form SS-5.

your public library probably has a

subscription to heritage quest and is another useful

database for native records and military

records, but they are a subscription.

however, many times, their month’s

subscription price is less than the price of

a dawes packet. you can google fold3 and your

ancestor’s name to see if your relative’s

dawes packet is available at fold3.


access genealogy’s collection of information
if you are from another tribe, use the links

at the right.
if you are from an associated tribe, see the

several possible links on the webpage.

bear in mind that many records are not

online. always collect documents, as just the

reference to a relative in an index informs

you that a document is available.

death records:
death certificate: state vital records or if

very old, state archives. ask for the

person’s name at the time of death. you can

look at death indices, such as the social

security death index 1964-present for a date

of death on or
obituary: see your local public library,

interlibrary loan program. ask for the

person’s name at the time of death.

approximate date of death is helpful. if old,

state historical society or state archives

might have historical newspapers.
cemetery record: try or ask for the person’s name at

the time of death. if you find a relative,

you can click on the county or cemetery to

see if others with the same surname are

buried there.

marriage records:
state vital records office, county clerk or

if old, state archives or state historical


birth records:
state vital records office, or if old, state

archives or state historical society. if the

birth was before 1940, ask for a birth

certificate or a delayed birth certificate.

many people had to get delayed birth

certificates when social security came into

effect because they had to show proof of age.

this will be under the name used at the time

of birth.

census records:
you will want to search for census records

1940 on down to the birth of your relative.

the federal census was taken every 10 years,

however the 1890 census was largely destroyed

by fire. there are also some state census

records and native census records and native

rolls. and heritage quest are

two databases that include many census

records. many native census records kept by

NARA ( are

transcribed at accessgenealogy.

first of all, heritage and tribal enrollment

are two different things. many times natives

didn’t apply for enrollment because 1) they

didn’t qualify, 2) they were philosophically

opposed to enrollment, 3) they didn’t have

documentation, or 4) they were mississippi

choctaw and their ancestor had accepted land

or benefits in lieu of tribal enrollment.

some mississippi choctaw were accepted by

adoption or lawsuit.

for those people who do not yet have a card,

you should research the 1900-1940 census to

know approximate dates of birth, birthplaces,

family members. this will also tell you if

someone is more likely to be on the freedman

roll or as applicants to the dawes roll taken

1896-1906 in indian territory/oklahoma for

the five major tribes.

applicants on the dawes roll can be found


partial names are ok. look at the guide link

for explanation of the codes.

when you find a possible name, then click on

the card# in the card column to see the

family group. if it is your family group, and

they were likely enrolled, then you can

search the oklahoma historical society’s

dawes roll link to get the enrollment #’s for

particular family members.

if your family was enrolled by council action

early in the process or was enrolled by

lawsuit, they might not appear on the

oklahoma historical society website. you

would have to check with the tribe on that.

even if your family was rejected by the dawes

process, you may want the testimony, census

card, application information for your

genealogical purposes.

the federal census will also help you decide

which state to contact for vital records.

the dawes roll was taken 1896-1906, so you

should trace your ancestors down to that time

period. mostly, they had to be living in

oklahoma by that time and agree to live there


history of the dawes roll
wikipedia entries are sometimes opinionated;

entered by volunteers.

helpful information about tribal enrollment


freedmen information:




2 ways to search:

this will let you enter partial names to get

card#. click on the card# in the card column

and you can see other names in that family.
other resources on the left and at the bottom

of this webpage. native census records and

databases are especially useful.

this will give you card# (family group) and

enrollment #. they have some native marriage

records too. other oklahoma records listed at

if your relative was enrolled by court

action, their name might not be on this list.
if the name is common, you may find too many

possible records.
you can order the dawes packet from the

oklahoma historical society website.

if you find a relative listed on the dawes

roll, fold3 may have filmed the record and

could be available online.

other resources are NARA

the five civilized tribes book put out by the

department of the interior has testimony.

and you can read it online

and these are the microfilms at fort worth TX



there may be additional records about your

contact NARA for

these and other records listed on this



75.23.1 Records of the Dawes Commission
75.23.2 Records of the U.S. Indian Inspector

for Indian Territory
75.23.3 General records of the Commissioner

to the Five Civilized Tribes

(Record Group 75)
oklahoma newspaper and archives search. some

of these resources may be available through

interlibrary loan/public library.
you can try school records in the oklahoma

state archives, the oklahoma historical

society and NARA.
these two resources might have historical

newspapers and local history books. your

public library/interlibrary loan program

might also have access to newspapers and

local history books.

as for stories, you can see if any of the

relatives are mentioned in the oklahoma

pioneer papers or oklahoma chronicles.
volumes are alphabetical by surname.
if an interview is not online, contact the

host of these interviews.


as for location for your family, you should

look on the federal census 1900-1940 for your

family and this will give you locations,

family members. your local public library

probably has a subscription to

and heritage quest.

the tribe has an excellent information to

help you. it is found under genealogy


some obituaries:


NARA federal records

repository. the fort worth, TX office has

archives for oklahoma and texas tribes.

atlanta/morrow office has archives for the

southeast tribes. many offices have

microfilmed records for several tribes. note

that this web address has changed recently


freedmen info:
You can ONLY apply for Choctaw Nation

Membership, AFTER you have obtained a CDIB

card proving your Choctaw Blood lineage to a

direct ancestor who actually enrolled, BY

BLOOD. Freedmen DID NOT enroll By Blood. When

US Congress closed the Final Dawes Commission

Rolls, there were no provisions granting

Freedmen any benefits after the Dawes

Commission closed. The tribe Constitution

states BY BLOOD. however, the documents

(application, census card and testimony) may

help you find out more about your heritage.

about blood quantum laws:

calculations about blood quantum:


mississippi choctaw and choctaw tribe

explained here:


jena choctaw tribe in louisiana:

MOWA tribe



MOWA Band Of Choctaws Wilford Taylor 1080 Red

Fox Road Mount Vernon, AL 36560 (251) 829-

5500. E-Mail:

other choctaw tribes:


chickasaw historical society
Historic Preservation and Repatriation Office
Phone: (580) 272-5325
Fax: (580) 272-5327
2020 E. Arlington, Suite 4, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

chickasaw tribe
Chickasaw Nation Headquarters
520 East Arlington, Ada, OK 74820
Phone (580) 436-2603
Mailing address: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

chickasaw genealogy archive center Tribal

Phone: (580) 310-6477
Fax: (580) 559-0773
1003 Chamber Loop, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821
oklahoma historical society
marriage records



other historical societies:

some oklahoma genealogical societies:



texas tribes


oklahoma tribes:


tribes in other locations:



some links for the choctaw.

i looked at the land records and those need a

lot of work. i have no information about

whether or when they will improve some of

these categories.

types of records available for native

pages 366-369 in particular although the

entire native american chapter is helpful.
The Genealogist’s Companion and Sourcebook:
Guide to the Resources You Need for

Unpuzzling Your Past
Emily Anne Croom
you can ask for these particular pages from

your local public library. if they don’t have

the book, you can get the pages through the

interlibrary loan program.
native american records are discussed in

pages 352-386.

Tracing ancestors among the Five Civilized

Tribes: Southeastern Indians …
By Rachal Mills Lennon
this book could be accessed through the

interlibary loan program also.

always find the state archives. some records

are online, some records are not. but many

times you can find a record not found in

other places. you want to see also about

newspaper mentions for obituaries, births,

marriages in particular.

check courts for probate, civil and criminal

cases, marriage records.

if your ancestors lived on a reservation,

they might not appear on a federal census

because they were not taxed.

1860 census, indian territory.

this book is a good read about the dawes roll

and how they implemented it.
The Dawes Commission and the allotment of the

Five Civilized Tribes, 1893-1914
By Kent Carter
and you can read this book online. your

relatives’ testimony might be in the book.

see the menu at left. you can download it.
you should look at the enrollment

application, census card and testimony. this

post will tell you how to do that. these

documents will tell you more about your

heritage, but it won’t help you if your goal

is to be enrolled in the choctaw tribe of

oklahoma. some people were classed as

mississippi choctaw if the family had a

native heritage but didn’t qualify for

enrollment in the tribe.

there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the

five major tribes are on the dawes roll. look

at your family’s location around 1900-1930

time period (census will help you there) and

see if there was a tribe located nearby. it

is possible that your relatives were

affiliated with another tribe.

if they were mississippi choctaw, there is

probably a land grant in MS/AL to a head of

household called choctaw scrip land. this was

given in lieu of tribal enrollment 1830-1880

time period. has a database of

the MS and AL choctaw scrip land records,

called mississippi or alabama land records.

there are other land records in those

databases too,, so you have to look at the

authority/source cited. NARA has those land record


the mississippi choctaw were not removed from

oklahoma. but they were largely rejected for

tribal enrollment.

this website might help you in your search.

some people are trying to transcribe

i do not know what they are trying to

transcribe, but this is the volunteer page

and this might be of interest to you:

Rights of Mississippi Choctaws in the Choctaw


Index to the Final Rolls of the Citizens and

Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in

Indian Territory
the dawes roll is composed of applications to

the five major tribes in oklahoma.

good advice about native research:


if your relatives came from a different

geographic location or belonged to a

different tribe, try searching google for the

state and tribes. you might find a contact

for a state-recognized tribe or a federal

recognized tribe.

this page can help you set up a targeted

google search.


penny postcards. this is a website that

features pictures that were on postcards.

click on the state to see the postcards that

they have.

if you have a penny postcard, you can click

on submissions to add your penny postcard to

the collection.

these searches will combine several possible

search terms and give you the best matches.

i have collected many resources over the

years. if you want to write to me, and request the choctaw

resource list, i will be glad to send it to


i am just a volunteer that wants to empower

people to learn how to do genealogy.

suzanne hamlet shatto