Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma

The Great Seal of the Choctaw Nation

Plina A Caroline Bowen-Peppers

Anthony Hein Anthony Hein

posted on March 11, 2013

I am interested in finding out if Plina A Caroline Bowen-Peppers has a connection with the Choctaw Nation? I was informed recently that she was kicked out of the tribe probably around 1866 for get married to William Jackson Peppers. I am assuming that is this is accurate then she would not be on any rolls? Also I have her father possibly being Seaborn Bowen.

suzanne hamlet shatto suzanne hamlet shatto

posted on March 12, 2013

need more information here. who were her children? did anyone enroll in the 1900 time period? where were your ancestors living in 1900, around the time that the dawes roll was taken 1896-1906 in the state of oklahoma.

no location, no dates of birth/death or place of birth/death, no children in your post. this is a pretty big handicap in looking for records.

the fact that you name her father also means that you are probably going too far back in time for the search to begin. i always start with the death and work backward in time.

the trail of tears occurred in the late 1830’s from the reservations in AL/MS to OK.

if natives lived on-reservation in the 1800’s then they were enumerated in native census records because they were not taxed. if they lived off-reservation, they were on federal census records taken every 10 years.

i do not see any peppers records on the dawes roll. if your family was not living in OK by 1900, that could be a reason they didn’t apply to an oklahoma tribe. there are many tribes in oklahoma and elsewhere, so you should know where your family was living 1900-1940 and check with tribes that might be nearby.

this record is on, so it makes me question who was married to caroline bowen:

William Jackson Peppers
Birth 8 Feb 1865 in Gwinnett County, Georgia
Death 19 Dec 1943 in Lawrence County, Tennessee, USA


Robert Hamilton Peppers 1843 – 1926 Caroline Emmaline Bowen 1846 – 1919

Show siblings
Spouse & Children

Delera Smithie Lipscomb 1871 – 1967 James Peppers 1885 – 1963 Thomas Arthur Peppers 1887 – 1976 Robert Peppers 1889 – 1967 Haley Peppers 1894 – 1969 Rosa Belle Peppers 1897 – 1997 Marshall Marvin Peppers 1900 – 1972 Arlenia Peppers 1904 – Genevia Peppers 1908 – 1936 Rufus Peppers 1911 – 1981

Caroline Emmaline Bowen
Birth 30 May 1846 in Ga
Death 1 Dec 1919 in DeKalb County, Alabama, USA

Robert Hamilton Peppers
Birth 1843 in Meriwether, Baldwin, Georgia
Death 7 Mar 1926 in DeKalb County, Alabama, USA

if she passed away in AL, she might be of the MOWA tribe or the mississippi choctaw tribe. location is an important factor in tribal affiliation.

someone else’s tree says this is robert hamilton peppers’ wife.

Plina A Bowen
Birth 1846-05-30 in Gwinnett,,Georgia,USA
Death 1919-12-01 in Dekalb,,Alabama,USA

there are several choctaw tribes. this is the website of the oklahoma tribe of the choctaw. there are state-recognized and federally-recognized tribes. there are some tribes still seeking recognition. tribes are associated bands of natives.

1900 United States Federal Census about Plina A Peppers
Name: Plina A Peppers
Age: 53
Birth Date: Apr 1847
Birthplace: Georgia
Home in 1900: Lathamville, De Kalb, Alabama
[De Kalb]
Race: White
Gender: Female
Relation to Head of House: Wife
Marital Status: Married
Spouse’s Name: Robert H Peppers
Marriage Year: 1866
Years Married: 34
Father’s Birthplace: Georgia
Mother’s Birthplace: Georgia
Mother: number of living children: 12
Mother: How many children: 12
Occupation: View on Image
Neighbors: View others on page
Household Members:
Name Age
Robert H Peppers 60
Plina A Peppers 53
Laura L Peppers 19
Dartha J Peppers 16
John D Peppers 12
Nannie D Peppers 11
Charley R Peppers 8
Source Citation: Year: 1900; Census Place: Lathamville, De Kalb, Alabama; Roll: 14; Page: 10A; Enumeration District: 0075; FHL microfilm: 1240014.

several researchers are interested in this line. you should contact them, share information and sources.

Name: Caline Peppers
Birth Date: 30 May 1846
Age at Death: 73
Death Date: 1 Dec 1919
Burial Place: Liberty (DeKalb County), DeKalb County, Alabama, USA

1860 United States Federal Census about Caroline Bowen
Name: Caroline Bowen
Age in 1860: 14
Birth Year: abt 1846
Birthplace: Georgia
Home in 1860: Mitchell, Georgia
Gender: Female
Post Office: Camilla
Value of real estate: View image
Household Members:
Name Age
Wm E Hurst 23
Sarana J Hurst 22
Caroline Bowen 14
Source Citation: Year: 1860; Census Place: , Mitchell, Georgia; Roll: M653_131; Page: 678; Image: 144; Family History Library Film: 803131.
some people have tagged this record as hers. i do not know. no relationships are given on this census.

1870 United States Federal Census about Caroline Peppers
Name: Caroline Peppers
Age in 1870: 25
Birth Year: abt 1845
Birthplace: Georgia
Home in 1870: Pickneyville, Gwinnett, Georgia
Race: White
Gender: Female
Post Office: Pickneyville
Value of real estate: View image
Household Members:
Name Age
Robt Peppers 30
Caroline Peppers 25
William Peppers 3
Joseph Peppers 1
Infant Peppers 3/12
Source Citation: Year: 1870; Census Place: Pickneyville, Gwinnett, Georgia; Roll: M593_154; Page: 15A; Image: 33; Family History Library Film: 545653.

so it appears to me that she might be associated with another tribe. you might also look into the cherokee tribe.

state archives or state historical societies might have some information.

genealogists use names, dates, locations, children and spouses to match records. if you have a common surname, you need to give more information rather than less. if you post about women, it is helpful to include the maiden name and the married name and designate which one is the maiden name.

start with what you know, gather documentation, then you can go backward in time. so get your birth certificate, your parents’ birth certificates and marriage license and then you can start on your grandparents. if someone passed away after 1/1/1937, they probably have a social security application on file. if you ask a government agency for a birth certificate, and they were born before 1929, they might have submitted a delayed birth certificate. death certificates, cemetery information and obituaries are helpful. you can usually get a copy of an obituary, newspaper mentions such as birth of a child or marriage, through the interlibrary loan program – see your local public library for this. i usually start with the death and work toward the person’s birth. military records and pension records can be helpful. census records can tell you where they were at particular times, names of family members. the census records up to 1940 are available, although the 1890 census was largely destroyed.

you will need to know who the family members were 1830-1930 or so, where they were located. a good way to do this is by census records.
the first time period to concentrate on is 1900-1930 because most tribes enrolled during this period.
federal census records can help you here. you can get access through your local public library – two databases: 1) heritage quest, 2)

the dawes roll shows the applicants to the five major tribes 1896-1906 in indian territory/oklahoma. if your family applied for this, there would be a census card, dawes application, other supporting documents and testimony. these are located at NARA
try the fort worth, TX office.

obituaries through the oklahoma choctaw tribe is through the history link for the tribe:

social security application for a deceased person:
form SS-5.

your public library probably has a subscription to heritage quest and is another useful database for native records and military records, but they are a subscription. however, many times, their month’s subscription price is less than the price of a dawes packet. you can google fold3 and your ancestor’s name to see if your relative’s dawes packet is available at fold3.
partial names are allowed.

bear in mind that many records are not online. always collect documents, as just the reference to a relative in an index informs you that a document is available.

death records:
death certificate: state vital records or if very old, state archives. ask for the person’s name at the time of death. you can look at death indices, such as the social security death index 1964-present for a date of death on or
obituary: see your local public library, interlibrary loan program. ask for the person’s name at the time of death. approximate date of death is helpful. if old, state historical society or state archives might have historical newspapers.
cemetery record: try or ask for the person’s name at the time of death. if you find a relative, you can click on the county or cemetery to see if others with the same surname are buried there.

marriage records:
state vital records office, county clerk or if old, state archives or state historical society.

birth records:
state vital records office, or if old, state archives or state historical society. if the birth was before 1940, ask for a birth certificate or a delayed birth certificate. many people had to get delayed birth certificates when social security came into effect because they had to show proof of age. this will be under the name used at the time of birth.

census records:
you will want to search for census records 1940 on down to the birth of your relative. the federal census was taken every 10 years, however the 1890 census was largely destroyed by fire. there are also some state census records and native census records and native rolls. and heritage quest are two databases that include many census records. many native census records kept by NARA ( are transcribed at accessgenealogy.
several helpful links for records in the choctaw territory

first of all, heritage and tribal enrollment are two different things. many times natives didn’t apply for enrollment because 1) they didn’t qualify, 2) they were philosophically opposed to enrollment, 3) they didn’t have documentation, or 4) they were mississippi choctaw and their ancestor had accepted land or benefits in lieu of tribal enrollment.

for those people who do not yet have a card, you should research the 1900-1940 census to know approximate dates of birth, birthplaces, family members. this will also tell you if someone is more likely to be on the freedman roll or as applicants to the dawes roll taken 1896-1906 in indian territory/oklahoma for the five major tribes.

applicants can be found here:
partial names are ok. look at the guide link for explanation of the codes.

when you find a possible name, then click on the card# in the card column to see the family group. if it is your family group, and they were likely enrolled, then you can search the oklahoma historical society’s dawes roll link to get the enrollment #’s for particular family members.

if your family was enrolled by council action early in the process or was enrolled by lawsuit, they might not appear on the oklahoma historical society website. you would have to check with the tribe on that.

even if your family was rejected by the dawes process, you may want the testimony, census card, application information for your genealogical purposes.

the federal census will also help you decide which state to contact for vital records.

the dawes roll was taken 1896-1906, so you should trace your ancestors down to that time period. mostly, they had to be living in oklahoma by that time and agree to live there permanently.

history of the dawes roll
wikipedia entries are sometimes opinionated; entered by volunteers.

helpful information about tribal enrollment

freedmen information:

2 ways to search:
this will let you enter partial names to get card#. click on the card# in the card column and you can see other names in that family.
other resources on the left and at the bottom of this webpage. native census records and databases are especially useful.
this will give you card# (family group) and enrollment #. they have some native marriage records too. other oklahoma records listed at left.
if your relative was enrolled by court action, their name might not be on this list.
if the name is common, you may find too many possible records.
you can order the dawes packet from the oklahoma historical society website.

if you find a relative listed on the dawes roll, fold3 may have filmed the record and could be available online.
other resources are NARA

the five civilized tribes book put out by the department of the interior has testimony.
and you can read it online

and these are the microfilms at fort worth TX archives.

there may be additional records about your relative:
contact NARA for these and other records listed on this webpage.

75.23.1 Records of the Dawes Commission
75.23.2 Records of the U.S. Indian Inspector for Indian Territory
75.23.3 General records of the Commissioner to the Five Civilized Tribes
(Record Group 75)
oklahoma newspaper and archives search. some of these resources may be available through interlibrary loan/public library.

the tribe has an excellent information to help you. it is found under genealogy advocacy.
some obituaries:

NARA federal records repository. the fort worth, TX office has archives for oklahoma and texas tribes. atlanta/morrow office has archives for the southeast tribes. many offices have microfilmed records for several tribes. note that this web address has changed recently from

freedmen info:
You can ONLY apply for Choctaw Nation Membership, AFTER you have obtained a CDIB card proving your Choctaw Blood lineage to a direct ancestor who actually enrolled, BY BLOOD. Freedmen DID NOT enroll By Blood. When US Congress closed the Final Dawes Commission Rolls, there were no provisions granting Freedmen any benefits after the Dawes Commission closed. The tribe Constitution states BY BLOOD. however, the documents (application, census card and testimony) may help you find out more about your heritage.

about blood quantum laws:
calculations about blood quantum:

mississippi choctaw and choctaw tribe explained here:

jena choctaw tribe in louisiana:

MOWA tribe
MOWA Band Of Choctaws Wilford Taylor 1080 Red Fox Road Mount Vernon, AL 36560 (251) 829-5500. E-Mail:

other choctaw tribes:

chickasaw historical society
Historic Preservation and Repatriation Office
Phone: (580) 272-5325
Fax: (580) 272-5327
2020 E. Arlington, Suite 4, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

chickasaw tribe
Chickasaw Nation Headquarters
520 East Arlington, Ada, OK 74820
Phone (580) 436-2603
Mailing address: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

chickasaw genealogy archive center Tribal Library
Phone: (580) 310-6477
Fax: (580) 559-0773
1003 Chamber Loop, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821
oklahoma historical society
marriage records

other historical societies:
some oklahoma genealogical societies:

texas tribes

oklahoma tribes:

some links for the choctaw.
i looked at the land records and those need a lot of work. i have no information about whether or when they will improve some of these categories.

types of records available for native americans:
pages 366-369 in particular although the entire native american chapter is helpful.
The Genealogist’s Companion and Sourcebook:
Guide to the Resources You Need for Unpuzzling Your Past
Emily Anne Croom
you can ask for these particular pages from your local public library. if they don’t have the book, you can get the pages through the interlibrary loan program.
native american records are discussed in pages 352-386.

Tracing ancestors among the Five Civilized Tribes: Southeastern Indians …
By Rachal Mills Lennon
this book could be accessed through the interlibary loan program also.

always find the state archives. some records are online, some records are not. but many times you can find a record not found in other places. you want to see also about newspaper mentions for obituaries, births, marriages in particular.

check courts for probate, civil and criminal cases, marriage records.

if your ancestors lived on a reservation, they might not appear on a federal census because they were not taxed.
1860 census, indian territory.

this book is a good read about the dawes roll and how they implemented it.
The Dawes Commission and the allotment of the Five Civilized Tribes, 1893-1914
By Kent Carter
and you can read this book online. your relatives’ testimony might be in the book.
see the menu at left. you can download it.
you should look at the enrollment application, census card and testimony. this post will tell you how to do that. these documents will tell you more about your heritage, but it won’t help you if your goal is to be enrolled in the choctaw tribe of oklahoma. some people were classed as mississippi choctaw if the family had a native heritage but didn’t qualify for enrollment in the tribe.

there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the five major tribes are on the dawes roll. look at your family’s location around 1900-1930 time period (census will help you there) and see if there was a tribe located nearby. it is possible that your relatives were affiliated with another tribe.

if they were mississippi choctaw, there is probably a land grant in MS/AL to a head of household called choctaw scrip land. this was given in lieu of tribal enrollment 1830-1880 time period. has a database of the MS and AL choctaw scrip land records, called mississippi or alabama land records. there are other land records in those databases too,, so you have to look at the authority/source cited. NARA has those land record packages.

the mississippi choctaw was not removed from oklahoma. but they were largely rejected for tribal enrollment.

this website might help you in your search. some people are trying to transcribe applications.
i do not know what they are trying to transcribe, but this is the volunteer page

and this might be of interest to you:
Rights of Mississippi Choctaws in the Choctaw Nation
Index to the Final Rolls of the Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory
the dawes roll is composed of applications to the five major tribes in oklahoma.

good advice about native research:

if your relatives came from a different geographic location or belonged to a different tribe, try searching google for the state and tribes. you might find a contact for a state-recognized tribe or a federal recognized tribe.

this page can help you set up a targeted google search.

penny postcards. this is a website that features pictures that were on postcards. click on the state to see the postcards that they have.
if you have a penny postcard, you can click on submissions to add your penny postcard to the collection.

these searches will combine several possible search terms and give you the best matches.

i have collected many resources over the years. if you want to write to me, and request the choctaw resource list, i will be glad to send it to you.

i am just a volunteer that wants to empower people to learn how to do genealogy.

suzanne hamlet shatto