Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma

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Phoebe E. Tyler (Married to George W. Bell)

Sandra Hipps Childs Sandra Hipps Childs

posted on June 25

Located George W. Bell, Male, IW (Intermarried White) Card #2145, Tribe: Choctaw by Intermarriage, Roll #900, Found nothing on his wife who I believe to be Phoebe E. Tyler. Only listing I can find is where she was on the census of 1885 as Phebie Bell. If you have any additional information, please let me know.
Sandra Hipps Childs
Daughter of Katie Cline Bristol Hipps
Grand daughter of Elsie Jane Bell Bristol
Great grand daughter of Phebie Bell married to George W Bell.

attached:

suzanne hamlet shatto suzanne hamlet shatto

posted on July 12

have you looked at the dawes application taken 1896-1906 in indian territory/oklahoma?

you should find the census records 1900-1940.

george bell is a very common name.
find the card# here. click on more information and match it to the information you have.

http://userdb.rootsweb.ancestry.com/nativeamerican/

Reel 0010 Choctaw by Blood 1902-2155
frame 1862

phoebe mckinney is her maiden name. she died before the roll was finalized.

genealogists use names, dates, locations, children and spouses to match records. if you have a common

surname, you need to give more information rather than less. if you post about women, it is helpful to

include the maiden name and the married name and designate which one is the maiden name.

start with what you know, gather documentation, then you can go backward in time. so get your birth

certificate, your parents’ birth certificates and marriage license and then you can start on your

grandparents. if someone passed away after 1/1/1937, they probably have a social security application on

file. if you ask a government agency for a birth certificate, and they were born before 1929, they might have

submitted a delayed birth certificate. death certificates, cemetery information and obituaries are helpful.

you can usually get a copy of an obituary, newspaper mentions such as birth of a child or marriage, through

the interlibrary loan program – see your local public library for this. i usually start with the death and

work toward the person’s birth. military records and pension records can be helpful. census records can tell

you where they were at particular times, names of family members. the census records up to 1940 are

available, although the 1890 census was largely destroyed.

you will need to know who the family members were 1830-1940 or so, where they were located. a good way to do

this is by census records. the first time period to concentrate on is 1900-1930 because most tribes enrolled

during this period. federal census records can help you here. you can get access through your local public

library – two databases: 1) heritage quest, 2) ancestry.com.

there is a difference between tribal heritage and tribal enrollment.

find your relative in the 1900-1940 census. this will give you locations, family members, dates that you will

need for looking on the dawes roll, taken 1896-1906 in the state of oklahoma/indian territory. the dawes roll

lists applicants to the five major tribes of oklahoma. use the accessgenealogy website to do this or

ancestrypaths:
http://userdb.rootsweb.ancestry.com/nativeamerican/
get family group/card#, members of the family:
partial surnames ok. just enter the surname.

http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/final-rolls.htm
partial names might not be found on this website.

find a possible name, click on the # in the card# column and this will show you the family group as of

application. use the 1900 and 1910 census to match the names. write down the names, card#.

if you don’t find your family, then look at the 1900-1940 census locations for your family, look for nearby

tribes. contact the nearby tribes to see if your family had enrolled. find out membership criteria for that

tribe. there are tribes in other locations and other choctaw tribes. location is an important factor over

whether a native enrolled in a tribe. you won’t find that an original enrollee enrolled in the choctaw tribe

in oklahoma if they were living in another state, for instance. if your family was renting in 1910, for

instance, they had not received a land grant from one of the five major tribes in oklahoma and were probably

not enrolled. there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the 5 major tribes are on the dawes roll.

many natives did not want to live under tribal authority or didn’t qualify for enrollment or could not submit

satisfactory evidence to a tribe. this is very common. it means that your family is not enrolled in a tribe.

there were a few natives that were enrolled by tribal council approval or lawsuit. i don’t have any way to

tell you whether someone was enrolled because of this. you would have to contact the tribe for this

information. however, some people have posted this answer and you might be able to use google on your family

names and see this.

supposing you find your family in the dawes roll, then look at the oklahoma historical society dawes website

and put in the name of someone in that family group that you found on accessgenealogy. this will give you the

enrollment # if the enrollment was successful. write down the enrollment #s for your family.

if you found your family on the dawes roll, you might want a copy of the dawes packet. four sources for this:

1) once you have the card#, search here for documents. the website is free at this time:
http://www.ancestrypaths.com/five-civilized-tribes/
arranged by card#. use the slider bar at the bottom to approximate your card#. the packets are arranged in

order of card#. usually the beginning document references the card#.

there may be more than one card# for a particular person, depending on whether they were a parent at the time

of enrollment.

sometimes a family’s consideration also depends on an earlier decision in their family. so you may have more

than one card# to look up.

2) fold3.com is an online subscription resource and one month’s subscription is less than the price of a

dawes packet at NARA or oklahoma historical society.

3) NARA http://www.archives.gov fort worth, TX office
4) oklahoma historical society http://www.okhistory.org/research/dawes

a dawes packet contains census card, enrollment application, supporting documents and maybe testimony. even

if your family was not enrolled, the genealogical information might be of interest to you.

the enrolled members are referred to as original enrollees. if your family had enrolled by blood then you are

eligible to enroll in the choctaw tribe of oklahoma. all tribes have membership criteria. if your family had

been enrolled as freedman, then they were enrolled as former slaves and their descendants were not eligible

to enroll in the tribe.

the dawes roll shows the applicants to the five major tribes 1896-1906 in indian territory/oklahoma. if your

family applied for this, there would be a census card, dawes application, other supporting documents and

testimony. these are located at NARA http://www.archives.gov try the fort worth, TX office.

requirements for enrollment for several oklahoma tribes:
http://thorpe.ou.edu/OILS/blood.html
What are tribal membership requirements?

Tribal enrollment criteria are set forth in tribal constitutions, articles of incorporation or ordinances.

The criterion varies from tribe to tribe, so uniform membership requirements do not exist.

Two common requirements for membership are lineal decendency from someone named on the tribe’s base roll or

relationship to a tribal member who descended from someone named on the base roll. (A “base roll” is the

original list of members as designated in a tribal constitution or other document specifying enrollment

criteria.) Other conditions such as tribal blood quantum, tribal residency, or continued contact with the

tribe are common.

http://www.narf.org/nill/resources/enrollment.htm

enrollment is a two step process. first you have to get your CDIB card from the BIA to show your degree of

blood/eligibility to enroll in a particular tribe, and then you have to apply to the tribe for acceptance, if

you meet their membership requirements.

Tribal Government personnel, usually an Enrollment Clerk, located at a regional or agency office processes

applications for Certificates of Degree of Indian Blood (CDIB) and Indian Preference in Employment, BIA Form

4432, to anyone who can provide documentation that he or she descends from an American Indian tribe.
http://www.bia.gov/WhatWeDo/ServiceOverview/TribalGov/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_American_recognition_in_the_United_States
this article has many resources.
however i find the paragraph on “Recognition for individuals” to be somewhat insensitive.

i think someone should rewrite that paragraph.

What are the most typical requirements for membership?
Each tribe has a base roll which was established, usually, in the early 20th century, listing the members of

the tribe at that time. Your first challenge will be to prove direct lineal descent from someone listed on

that base roll. Then
you must prove that you have the required level of blood quantum – the percentage of your genetic make-up

that is native by bloodline. Most tribes require a 1/4 blood quantum – that is, you must be at least one-

fourth Native
American – but note that the Eastern Band of the Cherokees requires that you be only 1/16 or higher to join,

and the Cherokee Nation and Choctaw tribe have no minimum quantum restriction, so long as you can prove

descent. There may be other conditions for membership as well: requirements for tribal residency or continued

contact with the tribe are common.
http://freedomcenter.org/_media/pdf/genealogy/16.%20Native%20American%20-%20Tribal%20Membership.pdf

choctaw enrollment, forms, FAQs
http://www.choctawnation.com/services/departments/enrollment-cdib-and-tribal-membership/

obituaries through the oklahoma choctaw tribe is through the history link for the tribe:
http://www.choctawnation.com/history/

social security application for a deceased person:
http://www.ssa.gov/foia/html/foia_guide.htm
form SS-5.

your public library probably has a subscription to heritage quest and ancestry.com. fold3.com is another

useful database for native records and military records, but they are a subscription. however, many times,

their month’s subscription price is less than the price of a dawes packet. you can google fold3 and your

ancestor’s name to see if your relative’s dawes packet is available at fold3.
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/final-rolls.htm

http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/choctaw-indian-research.htm
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indian-census-records.htm
there is an 1860 and 1885 census in the indian territory

accessgenealogy’s collection of information: if you are from another tribe, use the links at the right.
if you are from an associated tribe, see the several possible links on the webpage.

bear in mind that many records are not online. always collect documents, as just the reference to a relative

in an index informs you that a document is available.

death records:
death certificate: state vital records or if very old, state archives. ask for the person’s name at the time

of death. you can look at death indices, such as the social security death index 1964-present for a date of

death on rootsweb.com or ancestry.com.
obituary: see your local public library, interlibrary loan program. ask for the person’s name at the time of

death. approximate date of death is helpful. if old, state historical society or state archives might have

historical newspapers.
cemetery record: try findagrave.com or interment.net. ask for the person’s name at the time of death. if you

find a relative, you can click on the county or cemetery to see if others with the same surname are buried

there.

marriage records:
state vital records office, county clerk or if old, state archives or state historical society.

birth records:
state vital records office, or if old, state archives or state historical society. if the birth was before

1940, ask for a birth certificate or a delayed birth certificate. many people had to get delayed birth

certificates when social security came into effect because they had to show proof of age. this will be under

the name used at the time of birth.

census records:
you will want to search for census records 1940 on down to the birth of your relative. the federal census was

taken every 10 years, however the 1890 census was largely destroyed by fire. there are also some state census

records and native census records and native rolls. ancestry.com and heritage quest are two databases that

include many census records. many native census records kept by NARA (http://www.archives.gov) are

transcribed at accessgenealogy.

first of all, heritage and tribal enrollment are two different things. many times natives didn’t apply for

enrollment because 1) they didn’t qualify, 2) they were philosophically opposed to enrollment, 3) they didn’t

have documentation, or 4) they were mississippi choctaw and their ancestor had accepted land or benefits in

lieu of tribal enrollment. some mississippi choctaw were accepted by adoption or lawsuit.

for those people who do not yet have a card, you should research the 1900-1940 census to know approximate

dates of birth, birthplaces, family members. this will also tell you if someone is more likely to be on the

freedman roll or as applicants to the dawes roll taken 1896-1906 in indian territory/oklahoma for the five

major tribes.

applicants on the dawes roll can be found here:
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/finalroll.php
partial names are ok. look at the guide link for explanation of the codes.

when you find a possible name, then click on the card# in the card column to see the family group. if it is

your family group, and they were likely enrolled, then you can search the oklahoma historical society’s dawes

roll link to get the enrollment #’s for particular family members.
http://www.okhistory.org/research/dawes

if your family was enrolled by council action early in the process or was enrolled by lawsuit, they might not

appear on the oklahoma historical society website. you would have to check with the tribe on that.

even if your family was rejected by the dawes process, you may want the testimony, census card, application

information for your genealogical purposes.

the federal census will also help you decide which state to contact for vital records.

the dawes roll was taken 1896-1906, so you should trace your ancestors down to that time period. mostly, they

had to be living in oklahoma by that time and agree to live there permanently.

history of the dawes roll
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawes_Act
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawes_Commission
wikipedia entries are sometimes opinionated; entered by volunteers.

helpful information about tribal enrollment
http://www.felihkatubbe.com/ChoctawNation/TribalMembership.html

freedmen information:
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ewyatt/_borders/
http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/F/FR016.html
http://www.african-nativeamerican.com/8-chocfreed.htm
http://www.okhistory.org/research/dawes

2 ways to search:
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/finalroll.php
this will let you enter partial names to get card#. click on the card# in the card column and you can see

other names in that family. other resources on the left and at the bottom of this webpage. native census

records and databases are especially useful.

http://www.okhistory.org/research/dawes/index.php
this will give you card# (family group) and enrollment #. they have some native marriage records too. other

oklahoma records listed at left.
if your relative was enrolled by court action, their name might not be on this list.
if the name is common, you may find too many possible records.
you can order the dawes packet from the oklahoma historical society website.

if you find a relative listed on the dawes roll, fold3 may have filmed the record and could be available

online.
http://www.fold3.com/documents/46580455/dawes-packets/
other resources are NARA http://www.archives.gov

the five civilized tribes book put out by the department of the interior has testimony.
http://books.google.com/books/about/Five_civilized_tribes_in_Oklahoma.html?id=chATAAAAYAAJ
and you can read it online

and these are the microfilms at fort worth TX archives.
http://www.archives.gov/southwest/finding-aids/native-american-microfilm.html

there may be additional records about your relative:
contact NARA http://www.archives.gov for these and other records listed on this webpage.

75.23 RECORDS OF THE COMMISSIONER TO THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES 1852-1919
75.23.1 Records of the Dawes Commission
75.23.2 Records of the U.S. Indian Inspector for Indian Territory
75.23.3 General records of the Commissioner to the Five Civilized Tribes
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html
(Record Group 75)
1793-1989

http://gateway.okhistory.org/
this has a search but you may have to read the whole edition of a newspaper to find your search match.
the search term will be highlighted. the newspapers (location and years) are limited, so you might want to

search for the location and look at years available.

http://okhistory.cuadra.com/star/public.html
oklahoma newspaper and archives search. some of these resources may be available through interlibrary

loan/public library.
you can try school records in the oklahoma state archives, the oklahoma historical society and NARA.
http://www.odl.state.ok.us/oar/
http://www.okhistory.org/
these two resources might have historical newspapers and local history books. your public

library/interlibrary loan program might also have access to newspapers and local history books.

as for stories, you can see if any of the relatives are mentioned in the oklahoma pioneer papers or oklahoma

chronicles.

http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/
volumes are alphabetical by surname.
if an interview is not online, contact the host of these interviews.

http://www.okhistory.org/publications/chronicles

as for location for your family, you should look on the federal census 1900-1940 for your family and this

will give you locations, family members. your local public library probably has a subscription to

ancestry.com and heritage quest.

the tribe has an excellent information to help you. it is found under genealogy advocacy.
http://choctawnation.com/services/departments/community-services/
some obituaries:
http://www.choctawnation.com/history/obituaries/

NARA http://www.archives.gov/ federal records repository. the fort worth, TX office has archives for oklahoma

and texas tribes. atlanta/morrow office has archives for the southeast tribes. many offices have microfilmed

records for several tribes.

freedmen info:
You can ONLY apply for Choctaw Nation Membership, AFTER you have obtained a CDIB card proving your Choctaw

Blood lineage to a direct ancestor who actually enrolled, BY BLOOD. Freedmen DID NOT enroll By Blood. When US

Congress closed the Final Dawes Commission Rolls, there were no provisions granting Freedmen any benefits

after the Dawes Commission closed. The tribe Constitution states BY BLOOD. however, the documents

(application, census card and testimony) may help you find out more about your heritage.

about blood quantum laws:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_quantum_laws
calculations about blood quantum:
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wishawa4/Menominee%20Indians/quantum.htm

mississippi choctaw and choctaw tribe explained here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choctaw_Trail_of_Tears
http://www.choctaw.org/

jena choctaw tribe in louisiana:
http://www.jenachoctaw.org/

MOWA tribe
http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1368
http://www.uab.edu/uabmagazine/2009/july/losttribe
http://www.mowa-choctaw.com/

other choctaw tribes:
http://www.aaanativearts.com/choctaw-indians/index.html

chickasaw historical society
Historic Preservation and Repatriation Office
Phone: (580) 272-5325
Fax: (580) 272-5327
2020 E. Arlington, Suite 4, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

chickasaw tribe
Chickasaw Nation Headquarters
520 East Arlington, Ada, OK 74820
Phone (580) 436-2603
Mailing address: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821
http://www.chickasaw.net/index.htm

chickasaw genealogy archive center Tribal Library
Phone: (580) 310-6477
Fax: (580) 559-0773
1003 Chamber Loop, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

http://www.okhistory.org/
oklahoma historical society
marriage records
http://www.okhistory.org/research/library/marriage.html
http://www.okgenweb.org/~okgarvin/kinard/chocmarriageindex.htm

other historical societies:
http://www.daddezio.com/society/hill/SH-OK-NDX.html
some oklahoma genealogical societies:
http://www.censusfinder.com/oklahoma-genealogy-society.htm
http://www.geneasearch.com/societies/socokla.htm

texas tribes
http://www.native-languages.org/texas.htm
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas/index.htm
http://www.texasindians.com/
http://www.lsjunction.com/places/indians.htm

oklahoma tribes:
http://500nations.com/Oklahoma_Tribes.asp
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/oklahoma/index.htm
http://www.cowboy.net/native/tribes.html
http://yvwiiusdinvnohii.net/OKTribes.htm

tribes in other locations:
http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/tribal/list-of-federal-and-state-recognized-tribes.aspx

some links for the choctaw.
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/choctaw/index.htm
i looked at the land records and those need a lot of work. i have no information about whether or when they

will improve some of these categories.
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/choctaw-tribe.htm
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/choctaw-indian-research.htm
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indian-census-records.htm

types of records available for native americans:
pages 366-369 in particular although the entire native american chapter is helpful.
The Genealogist’s Companion and Sourcebook:
Guide to the Resources You Need for Unpuzzling Your Past
Emily Anne Croom
you can ask for these particular pages from your local public library. if they don’t have the book, you can

get the pages through the interlibrary loan program.
native american records are discussed in pages 352-386.

Tracing ancestors among the Five Civilized Tribes: Southeastern Indians …
By Rachal Mills Lennon
this book could be accessed through the interlibary loan program also.

always find the state archives. some records are online, some records are not. but many times you can find a

record not found in other places. you want to see also about newspaper mentions for obituaries, births,

marriages in particular.

check courts for probate, civil and criminal cases, marriage records.

if your ancestors lived on a reservation, they might not appear on a federal census because they were not

taxed.
http://www.okgenweb.org/~okgarvin/kinard/1860index.htm
1860 census, indian territory.

this book is a good read about the dawes roll and how they implemented it.
The Dawes Commission and the allotment of the Five Civilized Tribes, 1893-1914
By Kent Carter
and you can read this book online. your relatives’ testimony might be in the book.
http://www.archive.org/details/fivecivilizedtr00statgoog
see the menu at left. you can download it. you should look at the enrollment application, census card and

testimony. this post will tell you how to do that. these documents will tell you more about your heritage,

but it won’t help you if your goal is to be enrolled in the choctaw tribe of oklahoma. some people were

classed as mississippi choctaw if the family had a native heritage but didn’t qualify for enrollment in the

tribe.

there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the five major tribes are on the dawes roll. look at your family’s

location around 1900-1930 time period (census will help you there) and see if there was a tribe located

nearby. it is possible that your relatives were affiliated with another tribe.

http://www.burlesonstar.net/nationalnews/ci_25815930
changing tribal recognition rules

if they were mississippi choctaw, there is probably a land grant in MS/AL to a head of household called

choctaw scrip land. this was given in lieu of tribal enrollment 1830-1880 time period. ancestry.com has a

database of the MS and AL choctaw scrip land records, called mississippi or alabama land records. there are

other land records in those databases too,, so you have to look at the authority/source cited. NARA

http://www.archives.gov has those land record packages.

the mississippi choctaw were not removed from oklahoma. but they were largely rejected for tribal enrollment.

this website might help you in your search. some people are trying to transcribe applications.
http://www.us-census.org/native/choctaw_dawes.html
i do not know what they are trying to transcribe, but this is the volunteer page
http://www.us-census.org/states/graphics/status.htm

and this might be of interest to you:
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/choctaw/rights-of-choctaws.htm
Rights of Mississippi Choctaws in the Choctaw Nation

good advice about native research:
http://jenniferhsrn2.homestead.com/research2.html

if your relatives came from a different geographic location or belonged to a different tribe, try searching

google for the state and tribes. you might find a contact for a state-recognized tribe or a federal

recognized tribe.

this page can help you set up a targeted google search.
http://www.searchforancestors.com/google/searcher.html

penny postcards. this is a website that features pictures that were on postcards. click on the state to see

the postcards that they have.
http://www.usgwarchives.org/special/ppcs/ppcs.html
if you have a penny postcard, you can click on submissions to add your penny postcard to the collection.

these searches will combine several possible search terms and give you the best matches.

i have collected many resources over the years. if you want to write to me, shamlet76@gmail.com and request

the choctaw resource list, i will be glad to send it to you.

you may want to make a heritage book.
http://www.photobookgirl.com/blog/make-your-own-family-heritage-and-genealogy-photo-book/

good family tree software:
http://www.techshout.com/features/2013/22/best-free-genealogy-software/
i use legacy. the free basic edition is great for the beginning and helps you organize.

i am just a volunteer that wants to empower people to learn how to do genealogy.

suzanne hamlet shatto

rayson allen rayson allen

posted on July 14

Here is the basic content of Dawes Packet, Choctaw by Blood, Card # 2145 George W Bell:

George W Bell married Phoebe McKinney, Choctaw Indian, in 1878 at a church in Jacks Fork County, Indian Territory. Both were 19 years old when married.The marriage license was obtained for a fee of $25.00 from Judge Thomas W Frazier, Circuit Judge and Clerk of 2nd District, Wade County, Indian Territory. The marriage was performed by Benjamin Baker, a Minister of the Gospel. His testimony of 8/17/1903 states that
Phoebe lived with a man called Spencer who was already married and older than her. She left him because he would not get divorced from his wife, and then married George. Phoebe died in early 1896 and George remarried to Amy Cravette on 9/6/1896 at the home of Wesley Anderson.

Additional testimony by witnesses reveal that Phoebe Bell received money in 1893 from the Lease District Payroll of Wade County, I T, being payee # 42. Phoebe lost her parents during the (Civil)
War and was raised by Mulsie Nelson, wife of Gooding Nelson, who was Phoebe’s uncle. They lived in Jacks Fork County, I T.

1885 CHOCTAW NATION CENSUS, JACKS FORK COUNTY, I T
Gooding Nelson, age 45, male Indian
Mulsey Nelson, age 45, wife, female Indian
Stephen Nelson, age 26, son, male Indian
Eden Nelson, age 19, son, male Indian
Rhoda Nelson, age 14, daughter, female Indian

George Bell,age 26, male, citizen by intermarriage
Phoebe Bell, age 26, wife, female Indian
Elsie Bell, age 4, daughter, female Indian
Jesse Bell, age 1, son, male Indian

INFO ON HER FATHER, JOHN McKINNEY, TAKEN FROM
CIVIL WAR SERVICE RECORDS, CONFEDERATE, CSA;

John McKinney, age 35, enlisted in CSA Indian Troops, on 11/8/1861 for a term of 6 months. Mustered in as a Private, Company H, 1st Choctaw and Chickasaw Volunteer Mounted Rifles, serial # 51860668. He was assigned to Captain Joseph Half’s
Company. On 8/1/1862 he re-enlisted at Camp Davis, I T. where he was stationed, for a period of 2 years. Assigned as a Corporal under Captain Ellis W. Folsom’s Company. On 8/5/1862 he was reassigned to Captain Al Kreb’s Company.

HISTORY OF FORT DAVIS, TAKEN FROM “OKLAHOMA FORTS OF THE OLD WEST” FOUND AT legendsofamerica.com

This fort began construction in November, 1861, the exact time John McKinney was mustered in. The
regiment stationed here, commanded by General Albert Pike, was defeated at the Battle of Pea Ridge in March, 1862. The fort was abandoned and Confederate forces fell back to rebuild at Fort McCullough. On December 27, 1862, Fort Davis was
burned to the ground by Union Troops. Apparently Fort Davis was still active and held by Confederate troops on August 1, 1862, the date John McKinney re-enlisted. Their retreat happened a short time later, before December, 1862.

No info on how John McKinney’s wife died.