what documents do you have? there are no indication of documents in your post.
if they were on a federal census in the 1800s, this means that they were not living on a reservation. natives living on a reservation were on native census records but were not on federal census records.
is frazier a maiden name of catherine? when and where did they marry?
where were their children born and who were their children?
as for the 1850 census, was catherine’s previous married name halford? there is a lot of information that is left out here.
no name for j.p. williams/frazier? how do you know he changed his name? did he serve in the military? you say he died before the civil war but changed his name after the civil war.
this is a problem trying to trace this information because there are many facts missing. where and when were the children born? where did she die? do you have a cemetery record for either of them? an obituary? maybe a death certificate?
there might be mention of the mill accident in a historical newspaper. see your local public library/interlibrary loan for that. state archives and state historical societies often have historical newspapers and local history books.
both surnames are common.
i searched ancestry for a death record for catherine and i don’t see one.
natives didn’t keep records. natives had an oral tradition. native languages became written languages in the mid 1800s, but most natives still spoke but did not write their language.
1850 United States Federal Census about Sarah A Halford
Name: Sarah A Halford
Birth Year: abt 1841
Home in 1850: District 1, Wayne, Tennessee
Family Number: 2
Jess Halford 37
Catharine Halford 29
N J Halford 10
Sarah A Halford 9
Wm J Halford 6
A W Halford 4
J W Halford 1
Source Citation: Year: 1850; Census Place: District 1, Wayne, Tennessee; Roll: M432_899; Page: 269A; Image: 27.
the child, sarah halford, was born in 1841. this is fairly different than 1818.
1870 United States Federal Census about Catharine Frazour
Name: Catharine Frazour
Age in 1870: 52
Birth Year: abt 1818
Home in 1870: District 7, Wayne, Tennessee
Post Office: Waynesboro
Value of real estate: View Image
Catharine Frazour 52
Sarah Alford 27
Source Citation: Year: 1870; Census Place: District 7, Wayne, Tennessee; Roll: M593_1569; Page: 471B; Image: 169; Family History Library Film: 553068.
this census says sarah is a domestic servant.
i think you will have to start with the death and work backwards in time. you will probably have to get the childrens’ birth certificates or delayed birth certificates.
since they did not live on-reservation, i doubt that you will find them on native records. the native records were kept by the war department and they were largely created because of native rations on the reservation. natives who lived off-reservation were not getting rations.
accessgenealogy.com transcribed the native census records indices and NARA has these records.
genealogists use names, dates, locations,
children and spouses to match records. if you
have a common surname, you need to give more
information rather than less. if you post
about women, it is helpful to include the
maiden name and the married name and
designate which one is the maiden name.
start with what you know, gather
documentation, then you can go backward in
time. so get your birth certificate, your
parents’ birth certificates and marriage
license and then you can start on your
grandparents. if someone passed away after
1/1/1937, they probably have a social
security application on file. if you ask a
government agency for a birth certificate,
and they were born before 1929, they might
have submitted a delayed birth certificate.
death certificates, cemetery information and
obituaries are helpful. you can usually get a
copy of an obituary, newspaper mentions such
as birth of a child or marriage, through the
interlibrary loan program – see your local
public library for this. i usually start with
the death and work toward the person’s birth.
military records and pension records can be
helpful. census records can tell you where
they were at particular times, names of
family members. the census records up to 1940
are available, although the 1890 census was
you will need to know who the family members
were 1830-1930 or so, where they were
located. a good way to do this is by census
the first time period to concentrate on is
1900-1930 because most tribes enrolled during
federal census records can help you here. you
can get access through your local public
library – two databases: 1) heritage quest,
the dawes roll shows the applicants to the
five major tribes 1896-1906 in indian
territory/oklahoma. if your family applied
for this, there would be a census card, dawes
application, other supporting documents and
testimony. these are located at NARA
try the fort worth, TX office.
there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the
5 major tribes list applicants on the dawes
roll taken 1896-1906 in indian
requirements for enrollment for several
What are tribal membership requirements?
Tribal enrollment criteria are set forth in
tribal constitutions, articles of
incorporation or ordinances. The criterion
varies from tribe to tribe, so uniform
membership requirements do not exist.
Two common requirements for membership are
lineal decendency from someone named on the
tribe’s base roll or relationship to a tribal
member who descended from someone named on
the base roll. (A “base roll” is the original
list of members as designated in a tribal
constitution or other document specifying
enrollment criteria.) Other conditions such
as tribal blood quantum, tribal residency, or
continued contact with the tribe are common.
enrollment is a two step process. first you
have to get your CDIB card from the BIA to
show your degree of blood/eligibility to
enroll in a particular tribe, and then you
have to apply to the tribe for acceptance, if
you meet their membership requirements.
Tribal Government personnel, usually an
Enrollment Clerk, located at a regional or
agency office processes applications for
Certificates of Degree of Indian Blood (CDIB)
and Indian Preference in Employment, BIA Form
4432, to anyone who can provide documentation
that he or she descends from an American
this article has many resources.
however i find the paragraph on “Recognition
for individuals” to be somewhat insensitive.
i think someone should rewrite that
What are the most typical requirements for
Each tribe has a base roll which was
established, usually, in the early 20th
century, listing the members of the tribe
at that time. Your first challenge will be to
prove direct lineal descent from someone
listed on that base roll. Then
you must prove that you have the required
level of blood quantum – the percentage of
your genetic make-up that
is native by bloodline. Most tribes require a
1/4 blood quantum – that is, you must be at
least one-fourth Native
American – but note that the Eastern Band of
the Cherokees requires that you be only 1/16
or higher to join, and the Cherokee Nation
has no minimum quantum restriction, so long
as you can prove descent. There may be other
conditions for membership as well:
requirements for tribal residency or
continued contact with the tribe are common.
choctaw enrollment, forms, FAQs
obituaries through the oklahoma choctaw tribe
is through the history link for the tribe:
social security application for a deceased
your public library probably has a
subscription to heritage quest and
ancestry.com. fold3.com is another useful
database for native records and military
records, but they are a subscription.
however, many times, their month’s
subscription price is less than the price of
a dawes packet. you can google fold3 and your
ancestor’s name to see if your relative’s
dawes packet is available at fold3.
access genealogy’s collection of information
if you are from another tribe, use the links
at the right.
if you are from an associated tribe, see the
several possible links on the webpage.
bear in mind that many records are not
online. always collect documents, as just the
reference to a relative in an index informs
you that a document is available.
death certificate: state vital records or if
very old, state archives. ask for the
person’s name at the time of death. you can
look at death indices, such as the social
security death index 1964-present for a date
of death on rootsweb.com or ancestry.com.
obituary: see your local public library,
interlibrary loan program. ask for the
person’s name at the time of death.
approximate date of death is helpful. if old,
state historical society or state archives
might have historical newspapers.
cemetery record: try findagrave.com or
interment.net. ask for the person’s name at
the time of death. if you find a relative,
you can click on the county or cemetery to
see if others with the same surname are
state vital records office, county clerk or
if old, state archives or state historical
state vital records office, or if old, state
archives or state historical society. if the
birth was before 1940, ask for a birth
certificate or a delayed birth certificate.
many people had to get delayed birth
certificates when social security came into
effect because they had to show proof of age.
this will be under the name used at the time
you will want to search for census records
1940 on down to the birth of your relative.
the federal census was taken every 10 years,
however the 1890 census was largely destroyed
by fire. there are also some state census
records and native census records and native
rolls. ancestry.com and heritage quest are
two databases that include many census
records. many native census records kept by
NARA (http://www.archives.gov) are
transcribed at accessgenealogy.
first of all, heritage and tribal enrollment
are two different things. many times natives
didn’t apply for enrollment because 1) they
didn’t qualify, 2) they were philosophically
opposed to enrollment, 3) they didn’t have
documentation, or 4) they were mississippi
choctaw and their ancestor had accepted land
or benefits in lieu of tribal enrollment.
some mississippi choctaw were accepted by
adoption or lawsuit.
for those people who do not yet have a card,
you should research the 1900-1940 census to
know approximate dates of birth, birthplaces,
family members. this will also tell you if
someone is more likely to be on the freedman
roll or as applicants to the dawes roll taken
1896-1906 in indian territory/oklahoma for
the five major tribes.
applicants on the dawes roll can be found
partial names are ok. look at the guide link
for explanation of the codes.
when you find a possible name, then click on
the card# in the card column to see the
family group. if it is your family group, and
they were likely enrolled, then you can
search the oklahoma historical society’s
dawes roll link to get the enrollment #’s for
particular family members.
if your family was enrolled by council action
early in the process or was enrolled by
lawsuit, they might not appear on the
oklahoma historical society website. you
would have to check with the tribe on that.
even if your family was rejected by the dawes
process, you may want the testimony, census
card, application information for your
the federal census will also help you decide
which state to contact for vital records.
the dawes roll was taken 1896-1906, so you
should trace your ancestors down to that time
period. mostly, they had to be living in
oklahoma by that time and agree to live there
history of the dawes roll
wikipedia entries are sometimes opinionated;
entered by volunteers.
helpful information about tribal enrollment
2 ways to search:
this will let you enter partial names to get
card#. click on the card# in the card column
and you can see other names in that family.
other resources on the left and at the bottom
of this webpage. native census records and
databases are especially useful.
this will give you card# (family group) and
enrollment #. they have some native marriage
records too. other oklahoma records listed at
if your relative was enrolled by court
action, their name might not be on this list.
if the name is common, you may find too many
you can order the dawes packet from the
oklahoma historical society website.
if you find a relative listed on the dawes
roll, fold3 may have filmed the record and
could be available online.
other resources are NARA
the five civilized tribes book put out by the
department of the interior has testimony.
and you can read it online
and these are the microfilms at fort worth TX
there may be additional records about your
contact NARA http://www.archives.gov for
these and other records listed on this
75.23 RECORDS OF THE COMMISSIONER TO THE FIVE
CIVILIZED TRIBES 1852-1919
75.23.1 Records of the Dawes Commission
75.23.2 Records of the U.S. Indian Inspector
for Indian Territory
75.23.3 General records of the Commissioner
to the Five Civilized Tribes
(Record Group 75)
oklahoma newspaper and archives search. some
of these resources may be available through
interlibrary loan/public library.
you can try school records in the oklahoma
state archives, the oklahoma historical
society and NARA.
these two resources might have historical
newspapers and local history books. your
public library/interlibrary loan program
might also have access to newspapers and
local history books.
as for stories, you can see if any of the
relatives are mentioned in the oklahoma
pioneer papers or oklahoma chronicles.
volumes are alphabetical by surname.
if an interview is not online, contact the
host of these interviews.
as for location for your family, you should
look on the federal census 1900-1940 for your
family and this will give you locations,
family members. your local public library
probably has a subscription to ancestry.com
and heritage quest.
the tribe has an excellent information to
help you. it is found under genealogy
NARA http://www.archives.gov/ federal records
repository. the fort worth, TX office has
archives for oklahoma and texas tribes.
atlanta/morrow office has archives for the
southeast tribes. many offices have
microfilmed records for several tribes. note
that this web address has changed recently
You can ONLY apply for Choctaw Nation
Membership, AFTER you have obtained a CDIB
card proving your Choctaw Blood lineage to a
direct ancestor who actually enrolled, BY
BLOOD. Freedmen DID NOT enroll By Blood. When
US Congress closed the Final Dawes Commission
Rolls, there were no provisions granting
Freedmen any benefits after the Dawes
Commission closed. The tribe Constitution
states BY BLOOD. however, the documents
(application, census card and testimony) may
help you find out more about your heritage.
about blood quantum laws:
calculations about blood quantum:
mississippi choctaw and choctaw tribe
jena choctaw tribe in louisiana:
MOWA Band Of Choctaws Wilford Taylor 1080 Red
Fox Road Mount Vernon, AL 36560 (251) 829-
5500. E-Mail: email@example.com
other choctaw tribes:
chickasaw historical society
Historic Preservation and Repatriation Office
Phone: (580) 272-5325
Fax: (580) 272-5327
2020 E. Arlington, Suite 4, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821
Chickasaw Nation Headquarters
520 East Arlington, Ada, OK 74820
Phone (580) 436-2603
Mailing address: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821
chickasaw genealogy archive center Tribal
Phone: (580) 310-6477
Fax: (580) 559-0773
1003 Chamber Loop, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821
oklahoma historical society
other historical societies:
some oklahoma genealogical societies:
tribes in other locations:
some links for the choctaw.
i looked at the land records and those need a
lot of work. i have no information about
whether or when they will improve some of
types of records available for native
pages 366-369 in particular although the
entire native american chapter is helpful.
The Genealogist’s Companion and Sourcebook:
Guide to the Resources You Need for
Unpuzzling Your Past
Emily Anne Croom
you can ask for these particular pages from
your local public library. if they don’t have
the book, you can get the pages through the
interlibrary loan program.
native american records are discussed in
Tracing ancestors among the Five Civilized
Tribes: Southeastern Indians …
By Rachal Mills Lennon
this book could be accessed through the
interlibary loan program also.
always find the state archives. some records
are online, some records are not. but many
times you can find a record not found in
other places. you want to see also about
newspaper mentions for obituaries, births,
marriages in particular.
check courts for probate, civil and criminal
cases, marriage records.
if your ancestors lived on a reservation,
they might not appear on a federal census
because they were not taxed.
1860 census, indian territory.
this book is a good read about the dawes roll
and how they implemented it.
The Dawes Commission and the allotment of the
Five Civilized Tribes, 1893-1914
By Kent Carter
and you can read this book online. your
relatives’ testimony might be in the book.
see the menu at left. you can download it.
you should look at the enrollment
application, census card and testimony. this
post will tell you how to do that. these
documents will tell you more about your
heritage, but it won’t help you if your goal
is to be enrolled in the choctaw tribe of
oklahoma. some people were classed as
mississippi choctaw if the family had a
native heritage but didn’t qualify for
enrollment in the tribe.
there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the
five major tribes are on the dawes roll. look
at your family’s location around 1900-1930
time period (census will help you there) and
see if there was a tribe located nearby. it
is possible that your relatives were
affiliated with another tribe.
if they were mississippi choctaw, there is
probably a land grant in MS/AL to a head of
household called choctaw scrip land. this was
given in lieu of tribal enrollment 1830-1880
time period. ancestry.com has a database of
the MS and AL choctaw scrip land records,
called mississippi or alabama land records.
there are other land records in those
databases too,, so you have to look at the
authority/source cited. NARA
http://www.archives.gov has those land record
the mississippi choctaw were not removed from
oklahoma. but they were largely rejected for
this website might help you in your search.
some people are trying to transcribe
i do not know what they are trying to
transcribe, but this is the volunteer page
and this might be of interest to you:
Rights of Mississippi Choctaws in the Choctaw
Index to the Final Rolls of the Citizens and
Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in
the dawes roll is composed of applications to
the five major tribes in oklahoma.
good advice about native research:
if your relatives came from a different
geographic location or belonged to a
different tribe, try searching google for the
state and tribes. you might find a contact
for a state-recognized tribe or a federal
this page can help you set up a targeted
penny postcards. this is a website that
features pictures that were on postcards.
click on the state to see the postcards that
if you have a penny postcard, you can click
on submissions to add your penny postcard to
these searches will combine several possible
search terms and give you the best matches.
i have collected many resources over the
years. if you want to write to me,
firstname.lastname@example.org and request the choctaw
resource list, i will be glad to send it to
i am just a volunteer that wants to empower
people to learn how to do genealogy.
suzanne hamlet shatto