Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma

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JP (Peter) & Catherine Williams/Frazier

Teresa Frazier Barham Teresa Frazier Barham

posted on December 2, 2013 and updated on December 2, 2013

I am searching for GGGGrandparents JP & Catherine Williams/Frazier.This is the information I have found. JP Williams born 1811 in Tishomingo Mississippi, died around 1859 in a mill accident in Martin Mills Wayne County Tennessee.He married Catherine Frazier born 1818 in Alabama or Tennessee died 1899 in Tennessee.1850 census showed she lived at Clifton Tennessee with a Sarah Halford. The search for her parents or relatives have turned up blank, as well as JP. JP changed his last name to Frazier after the Civil War. There are stories that he killed 3 men for beating up his mother and that’s why he changed his last name.They had 5 children together.I would love to know about these two, mostly Catherine since she is blood related.My uncle and cousin searched for 10 years and traveled to different states in search of information on them and never found any.My uncle went to Missouri and found their grandson which was around 90 and had a long conversation about our families, but my uncle said when ask him about why the name change from Williams to Frazier the man become very upset and told him to leave and never come back. He kicked my uncle out and told him to never talk about this again. My uncle had a box of his personal records of our family tree but nothing before JP&Catherine’s marriage around 1835.It’s like they came from no where. I have talked to my uncles and aunts that are in their 80’s and they don’t know anything.My uncle passed away a year ago so the search has slowed down. I cant give up looking and knowing who they are. I hope someone can help me find more about them.My uncle also noted that JP was half Indian and Catherine was as well.I don’t know for sure.

suzanne hamlet shatto suzanne hamlet shatto

posted on December 2, 2013

what documents do you have? there are no indication of documents in your post.

if they were on a federal census in the 1800s, this means that they were not living on a reservation. natives living on a reservation were on native census records but were not on federal census records.

is frazier a maiden name of catherine? when and where did they marry?

where were their children born and who were their children?

as for the 1850 census, was catherine’s previous married name halford? there is a lot of information that is left out here.

no name for j.p. williams/frazier? how do you know he changed his name? did he serve in the military? you say he died before the civil war but changed his name after the civil war.

this is a problem trying to trace this information because there are many facts missing. where and when were the children born? where did she die? do you have a cemetery record for either of them? an obituary? maybe a death certificate?

there might be mention of the mill accident in a historical newspaper. see your local public library/interlibrary loan for that. state archives and state historical societies often have historical newspapers and local history books.

both surnames are common.

i searched ancestry for a death record for catherine and i don’t see one.

natives didn’t keep records. natives had an oral tradition. native languages became written languages in the mid 1800s, but most natives still spoke but did not write their language.

1850 United States Federal Census about Sarah A Halford
Name: Sarah A Halford
Age: 9
Birth Year: abt 1841
Birthplace: Tennessee
Home in 1850: District 1, Wayne, Tennessee
Gender: Female
Family Number: 2
Household Members:
Name Age
Jess Halford 37
Catharine Halford 29
N J Halford 10
Sarah A Halford 9
Wm J Halford 6
A W Halford 4
J W Halford 1
Source Citation: Year: 1850; Census Place: District 1, Wayne, Tennessee; Roll: M432_899; Page: 269A; Image: 27.

the child, sarah halford, was born in 1841. this is fairly different than 1818.

1870 United States Federal Census about Catharine Frazour
Name: Catharine Frazour
[Catharine Williams]
Age in 1870: 52
Birth Year: abt 1818
Birthplace: Tennessee
Home in 1870: District 7, Wayne, Tennessee
Race: White
Gender: Female
Post Office: Waynesboro
Value of real estate: View Image
Household Members:
Name Age
Catharine Frazour 52
Sarah Alford 27
Source Citation: Year: 1870; Census Place: District 7, Wayne, Tennessee; Roll: M593_1569; Page: 471B; Image: 169; Family History Library Film: 553068.

this census says sarah is a domestic servant.

i think you will have to start with the death and work backwards in time. you will probably have to get the childrens’ birth certificates or delayed birth certificates.

since they did not live on-reservation, i doubt that you will find them on native records. the native records were kept by the war department and they were largely created because of native rations on the reservation. natives who lived off-reservation were not getting rations.
accessgenealogy.com transcribed the native census records indices and NARA has these records.
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/choctaw-indian-research.htm

genealogists use names, dates, locations,

children and spouses to match records. if you

have a common surname, you need to give more

information rather than less. if you post

about women, it is helpful to include the

maiden name and the married name and

designate which one is the maiden name.

start with what you know, gather

documentation, then you can go backward in

time. so get your birth certificate, your

parents’ birth certificates and marriage

license and then you can start on your

grandparents. if someone passed away after

1/1/1937, they probably have a social

security application on file. if you ask a

government agency for a birth certificate,

and they were born before 1929, they might

have submitted a delayed birth certificate.

death certificates, cemetery information and

obituaries are helpful. you can usually get a

copy of an obituary, newspaper mentions such

as birth of a child or marriage, through the

interlibrary loan program – see your local

public library for this. i usually start with

the death and work toward the person’s birth.

military records and pension records can be

helpful. census records can tell you where

they were at particular times, names of

family members. the census records up to 1940

are available, although the 1890 census was

largely destroyed.

you will need to know who the family members

were 1830-1930 or so, where they were

located. a good way to do this is by census

records.
the first time period to concentrate on is

1900-1930 because most tribes enrolled during

this period.
federal census records can help you here. you

can get access through your local public

library – two databases: 1) heritage quest,

2) ancestry.com.

the dawes roll shows the applicants to the

five major tribes 1896-1906 in indian

territory/oklahoma. if your family applied

for this, there would be a census card, dawes

application, other supporting documents and

testimony. these are located at NARA
http://www.archives.gov
try the fort worth, TX office.
there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the

5 major tribes list applicants on the dawes

roll taken 1896-1906 in indian

territory/oklahoma.

requirements for enrollment for several

oklahoma tribes:
http://thorpe.ou.edu/OILS/blood.html
What are tribal membership requirements?

Tribal enrollment criteria are set forth in

tribal constitutions, articles of

incorporation or ordinances. The criterion

varies from tribe to tribe, so uniform

membership requirements do not exist.

Two common requirements for membership are

lineal decendency from someone named on the

tribe’s base roll or relationship to a tribal

member who descended from someone named on

the base roll. (A “base roll” is the original

list of members as designated in a tribal

constitution or other document specifying

enrollment criteria.) Other conditions such

as tribal blood quantum, tribal residency, or

continued contact with the tribe are common.

http://www.narf.org/nill/resources/enrollment

.htm

enrollment is a two step process. first you

have to get your CDIB card from the BIA to

show your degree of blood/eligibility to

enroll in a particular tribe, and then you

have to apply to the tribe for acceptance, if

you meet their membership requirements.

Tribal Government personnel, usually an

Enrollment Clerk, located at a regional or

agency office processes applications for

Certificates of Degree of Indian Blood (CDIB)

and Indian Preference in Employment, BIA Form

4432, to anyone who can provide documentation

that he or she descends from an American

Indian tribe.
http://www.bia.gov/WhatWeDo/ServiceOverview/T

ribalGov/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_American_

recognition_in_the_United_States
this article has many resources.
however i find the paragraph on “Recognition

for individuals” to be somewhat insensitive.

i think someone should rewrite that

paragraph.

What are the most typical requirements for

membership?
Each tribe has a base roll which was

established, usually, in the early 20th

century, listing the members of the tribe
at that time. Your first challenge will be to

prove direct lineal descent from someone

listed on that base roll. Then
you must prove that you have the required

level of blood quantum – the percentage of

your genetic make-up that
is native by bloodline. Most tribes require a

1/4 blood quantum – that is, you must be at

least one-fourth Native
American – but note that the Eastern Band of

the Cherokees requires that you be only 1/16

or higher to join, and the Cherokee Nation

has no minimum quantum restriction, so long

as you can prove descent. There may be other

conditions for membership as well:

requirements for tribal residency or

continued contact with the tribe are common.
http://freedomcenter.org/_media/pdf/genealogy

/16.%20Native%20American%20-%20Tribal

%20Membership.pdf

choctaw enrollment, forms, FAQs
http://www.choctawnation.com/services/departm

ents/enrollment-cdib-and-tribal-membership/

obituaries through the oklahoma choctaw tribe

is through the history link for the tribe:
http://www.choctawnation.com/history/

social security application for a deceased

person:
http://www.ssa.gov/foia/html/foia_guide.htm
form SS-5.

your public library probably has a

subscription to heritage quest and

ancestry.com. fold3.com is another useful

database for native records and military

records, but they are a subscription.

however, many times, their month’s

subscription price is less than the price of

a dawes packet. you can google fold3 and your

ancestor’s name to see if your relative’s

dawes packet is available at fold3.
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/final-

rolls.htm

http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/choctaw

-indian-research.htm
access genealogy’s collection of information
if you are from another tribe, use the links

at the right.
if you are from an associated tribe, see the

several possible links on the webpage.

bear in mind that many records are not

online. always collect documents, as just the

reference to a relative in an index informs

you that a document is available.

death records:
death certificate: state vital records or if

very old, state archives. ask for the

person’s name at the time of death. you can

look at death indices, such as the social

security death index 1964-present for a date

of death on rootsweb.com or ancestry.com.
obituary: see your local public library,

interlibrary loan program. ask for the

person’s name at the time of death.

approximate date of death is helpful. if old,

state historical society or state archives

might have historical newspapers.
cemetery record: try findagrave.com or

interment.net. ask for the person’s name at

the time of death. if you find a relative,

you can click on the county or cemetery to

see if others with the same surname are

buried there.

marriage records:
state vital records office, county clerk or

if old, state archives or state historical

society.

birth records:
state vital records office, or if old, state

archives or state historical society. if the

birth was before 1940, ask for a birth

certificate or a delayed birth certificate.

many people had to get delayed birth

certificates when social security came into

effect because they had to show proof of age.

this will be under the name used at the time

of birth.

census records:
you will want to search for census records

1940 on down to the birth of your relative.

the federal census was taken every 10 years,

however the 1890 census was largely destroyed

by fire. there are also some state census

records and native census records and native

rolls. ancestry.com and heritage quest are

two databases that include many census

records. many native census records kept by

NARA (http://www.archives.gov) are

transcribed at accessgenealogy.

first of all, heritage and tribal enrollment

are two different things. many times natives

didn’t apply for enrollment because 1) they

didn’t qualify, 2) they were philosophically

opposed to enrollment, 3) they didn’t have

documentation, or 4) they were mississippi

choctaw and their ancestor had accepted land

or benefits in lieu of tribal enrollment.

some mississippi choctaw were accepted by

adoption or lawsuit.

for those people who do not yet have a card,

you should research the 1900-1940 census to

know approximate dates of birth, birthplaces,

family members. this will also tell you if

someone is more likely to be on the freedman

roll or as applicants to the dawes roll taken

1896-1906 in indian territory/oklahoma for

the five major tribes.

applicants on the dawes roll can be found

here:
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/finalro

ll.php
partial names are ok. look at the guide link

for explanation of the codes.

when you find a possible name, then click on

the card# in the card column to see the

family group. if it is your family group, and

they were likely enrolled, then you can

search the oklahoma historical society’s

dawes roll link to get the enrollment #’s for

particular family members.
http://www.okhistory.org/research/dawes

if your family was enrolled by council action

early in the process or was enrolled by

lawsuit, they might not appear on the

oklahoma historical society website. you

would have to check with the tribe on that.

even if your family was rejected by the dawes

process, you may want the testimony, census

card, application information for your

genealogical purposes.

the federal census will also help you decide

which state to contact for vital records.

the dawes roll was taken 1896-1906, so you

should trace your ancestors down to that time

period. mostly, they had to be living in

oklahoma by that time and agree to live there

permanently.

history of the dawes roll
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawes_Act
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawes_Commission
wikipedia entries are sometimes opinionated;

entered by volunteers.

helpful information about tribal enrollment
http://www.felihkatubbe.com/ChoctawNation/Tri

balMembership.html

freedmen information:
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.

com/~ewyatt/_borders/
http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encycloped

ia/entries/F/FR016.html
http://www.african-nativeamerican.com/8-

chocfreed.htm
http://www.okhistory.org/research/dawes

2 ways to search:
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/finalro

ll.php
this will let you enter partial names to get

card#. click on the card# in the card column

and you can see other names in that family.
other resources on the left and at the bottom

of this webpage. native census records and

databases are especially useful.

http://www.okhistory.org/research/dawes/index

.php
this will give you card# (family group) and

enrollment #. they have some native marriage

records too. other oklahoma records listed at

left.
if your relative was enrolled by court

action, their name might not be on this list.
if the name is common, you may find too many

possible records.
you can order the dawes packet from the

oklahoma historical society website.

if you find a relative listed on the dawes

roll, fold3 may have filmed the record and

could be available online.
http://www.fold3.com/documents/46580455/dawes

-packets/
other resources are NARA

http://www.archives.gov

the five civilized tribes book put out by the

department of the interior has testimony.
http://books.google.com/books/about/Five_civi

lized_tribes_in_Oklahoma.html?id=chATAAAAYAAJ
and you can read it online

and these are the microfilms at fort worth TX

archives.
http://www.archives.gov/southwest/finding-

aids/native-american-microfilm.html

there may be additional records about your

relative:
contact NARA http://www.archives.gov for

these and other records listed on this

webpage.

75.23 RECORDS OF THE COMMISSIONER TO THE FIVE

CIVILIZED TRIBES 1852-1919
75.23.1 Records of the Dawes Commission
75.23.2 Records of the U.S. Indian Inspector

for Indian Territory
75.23.3 General records of the Commissioner

to the Five Civilized Tribes
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-

records/groups/075.html
(Record Group 75)
1793-1989

http://okhistory.cuadra.com/star/public.html
oklahoma newspaper and archives search. some

of these resources may be available through

interlibrary loan/public library.
you can try school records in the oklahoma

state archives, the oklahoma historical

society and NARA.
http://www.odl.state.ok.us/oar/
http://www.okhistory.org/
these two resources might have historical

newspapers and local history books. your

public library/interlibrary loan program

might also have access to newspapers and

local history books.

http://www.archives.gov

as for stories, you can see if any of the

relatives are mentioned in the oklahoma

pioneer papers or oklahoma chronicles.

http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/
volumes are alphabetical by surname.
if an interview is not online, contact the

host of these interviews.

http://www.okhistory.org/publications/chronic

les

as for location for your family, you should

look on the federal census 1900-1940 for your

family and this will give you locations,

family members. your local public library

probably has a subscription to ancestry.com

and heritage quest.

the tribe has an excellent information to

help you. it is found under genealogy

advocacy.
http://choctawnation.com/services/departments

/community-services/
some obituaries:
http://www.choctawnation.com/history/obituari

es/

NARA http://www.archives.gov/ federal records

repository. the fort worth, TX office has

archives for oklahoma and texas tribes.

atlanta/morrow office has archives for the

southeast tribes. many offices have

microfilmed records for several tribes. note

that this web address has changed recently

from nara.gov.

freedmen info:
You can ONLY apply for Choctaw Nation

Membership, AFTER you have obtained a CDIB

card proving your Choctaw Blood lineage to a

direct ancestor who actually enrolled, BY

BLOOD. Freedmen DID NOT enroll By Blood. When

US Congress closed the Final Dawes Commission

Rolls, there were no provisions granting

Freedmen any benefits after the Dawes

Commission closed. The tribe Constitution

states BY BLOOD. however, the documents

(application, census card and testimony) may

help you find out more about your heritage.

about blood quantum laws:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_quantum_la

ws
calculations about blood quantum:
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wishawa4/Me

nominee%20Indians/quantum.htm

mississippi choctaw and choctaw tribe

explained here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choctaw_Trail_of

_Tears
http://www.choctaw.org/

jena choctaw tribe in louisiana:
http://www.jenachoctaw.org/

MOWA tribe
http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article

.jsp?id=h-1368
http://www.uab.edu/uabmagazine/2009/july/lost

tribe
http://www.native-american-online.org/MOWA-

Choctaw.htm
MOWA Band Of Choctaws Wilford Taylor 1080 Red

Fox Road Mount Vernon, AL 36560 (251) 829-

5500. E-Mail: chieftaylor@mowachoctaw.com

other choctaw tribes:
http://www.aaanativearts.com/choctaw-

indians/index.html

chickasaw historical society
Historic Preservation and Repatriation Office
Phone: (580) 272-5325
Fax: (580) 272-5327
2020 E. Arlington, Suite 4, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

chickasaw tribe
Chickasaw Nation Headquarters
520 East Arlington, Ada, OK 74820
Phone (580) 436-2603
Mailing address: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821
http://www.chickasaw.net/index.htm

chickasaw genealogy archive center Tribal

Library
Phone: (580) 310-6477
Fax: (580) 559-0773
1003 Chamber Loop, Ada, OK 74820
send mail to: P.O. Box 1548, Ada, OK 74821

http://www.okhistory.org/
oklahoma historical society
marriage records
http://www.okhistory.org/research/library/mar

riage.html
http://www.okgenweb.org/~okgarvin/kinard/choc

marriageindex.htm

other historical societies:
http://www.daddezio.com/society/hill/SH-OK-

NDX.html
some oklahoma genealogical societies:
http://www.censusfinder.com/oklahoma-

genealogy-society.htm
http://www.geneasearch.com/societies/socokla.

htm

texas tribes
http://www.native-languages.org/texas.htm
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/texas/i

ndex.htm
http://www.texasindians.com/
http://www.lsjunction.com/places/indians.htm

oklahoma tribes:
http://500nations.com/Oklahoma_Tribes.asp
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/oklahom

a/index.htm
http://www.cowboy.net/native/tribes.html
http://yvwiiusdinvnohii.net/OKTribes.htm

tribes in other locations:
http://www.ncsl.org/issues-

research/tribal/list-of-federal-and-state-

recognized-tribes.aspx

some links for the choctaw.
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/

choctaw/index.htm
i looked at the land records and those need a

lot of work. i have no information about

whether or when they will improve some of

these categories.

types of records available for native

americans:
pages 366-369 in particular although the

entire native american chapter is helpful.
The Genealogist’s Companion and Sourcebook:
Guide to the Resources You Need for

Unpuzzling Your Past
Emily Anne Croom
you can ask for these particular pages from

your local public library. if they don’t have

the book, you can get the pages through the

interlibrary loan program.
native american records are discussed in

pages 352-386.

Tracing ancestors among the Five Civilized

Tribes: Southeastern Indians …
By Rachal Mills Lennon
this book could be accessed through the

interlibary loan program also.

always find the state archives. some records

are online, some records are not. but many

times you can find a record not found in

other places. you want to see also about

newspaper mentions for obituaries, births,

marriages in particular.

check courts for probate, civil and criminal

cases, marriage records.

if your ancestors lived on a reservation,

they might not appear on a federal census

because they were not taxed.
http://www.okgenweb.org/~okgarvin/kinard/1860

index.htm
1860 census, indian territory.

this book is a good read about the dawes roll

and how they implemented it.
The Dawes Commission and the allotment of the

Five Civilized Tribes, 1893-1914
By Kent Carter
and you can read this book online. your

relatives’ testimony might be in the book.
http://www.archive.org/details/fivecivilizedt

r00statgoog
see the menu at left. you can download it.
you should look at the enrollment

application, census card and testimony. this

post will tell you how to do that. these

documents will tell you more about your

heritage, but it won’t help you if your goal

is to be enrolled in the choctaw tribe of

oklahoma. some people were classed as

mississippi choctaw if the family had a

native heritage but didn’t qualify for

enrollment in the tribe.

there are 63 tribes in oklahoma but only the

five major tribes are on the dawes roll. look

at your family’s location around 1900-1930

time period (census will help you there) and

see if there was a tribe located nearby. it

is possible that your relatives were

affiliated with another tribe.

if they were mississippi choctaw, there is

probably a land grant in MS/AL to a head of

household called choctaw scrip land. this was

given in lieu of tribal enrollment 1830-1880

time period. ancestry.com has a database of

the MS and AL choctaw scrip land records,

called mississippi or alabama land records.

there are other land records in those

databases too,, so you have to look at the

authority/source cited. NARA

http://www.archives.gov has those land record

packages.

the mississippi choctaw were not removed from

oklahoma. but they were largely rejected for

tribal enrollment.

this website might help you in your search.

some people are trying to transcribe

applications.
http://www.us-

census.org/native/choctaw_dawes.html
i do not know what they are trying to

transcribe, but this is the volunteer page
http://www.us-

census.org/states/graphics/status.htm

and this might be of interest to you:
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/choctaw

/rights-of-choctaws.htm
Rights of Mississippi Choctaws in the Choctaw

Nation

http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/finalro

lls/
Index to the Final Rolls of the Citizens and

Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in

Indian Territory
the dawes roll is composed of applications to
the five major tribes in oklahoma.

good advice about native research:
http://jenniferhsrn2.homestead.com/research2.

html

if your relatives came from a different

geographic location or belonged to a

different tribe, try searching google for the

state and tribes. you might find a contact

for a state-recognized tribe or a federal

recognized tribe.

this page can help you set up a targeted

google search.
http://www.searchforancestors.com/google/sear

cher.html

penny postcards. this is a website that

features pictures that were on postcards.

click on the state to see the postcards that

they have.
http://www.usgwarchives.org/special/ppcs/ppcs

.html
if you have a penny postcard, you can click

on submissions to add your penny postcard to

the collection.

these searches will combine several possible

search terms and give you the best matches.

i have collected many resources over the

years. if you want to write to me,

shamlet76@gmail.com and request the choctaw
resource list, i will be glad to send it to
you.

i am just a volunteer that wants to empower
people to learn how to do genealogy.

suzanne hamlet shatto